Publications on Nyungwe

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Nyungwe Forest References – Ecology, Systematics, and Conservation:

Alpert, P. 1995. Applying Ecological Research at Integrated Conservation and Development Projects. Ecological Applications 5(4).

Dowsett, R.J. (ed) 1990. Survey of the fauna and flora of Nyungwe forest, Rwanda. Tauraco research report No. 3.

Dzwonko, Z. and J. Kornas. 1994. Patterns of Species Richness and Distribution of Pteridophytes in Rwanda (Central Africa): A Numerical Approach. Journal of Biogeography 21(5): 491-501.

Ewango, C. E. N. 2001. Flora and vegetation of the natural forest of Nyungwe, Rwanda Systematics and Geography of Plants 71(2)2001. p.1009-1015.

Fimbel, Cheryl; Vedder, Amy; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Mulindahabi, Felix. 2001. An ecological basis for large group size in Colobus angolensis in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology 39(1):83-92.

Graham, Catherine H.; Timothy C. Moermond; Kurt A. Kristensen; Joseph Mvukiyumwami. 1995. Seed Dispersal Effectiveness by Two Bulbuls on Maesa lanceolata, an African Montane Forest Tree Biotropica 27(4): 479-486.

Gross, N.D., Torti, S.D., Feener, D.H. & P.D. Coley. 2000. Monodominance in an African rain forest: Is reduced herbivory important? Biotropica 32(3): 430-439.

Jolly, Dominique; David Taylor; Robert Marchant; Alan Hamilton; Raymonde Bonnefille; Guillaume Buchet; Guy Riollet. 1997. Vegetation Dynamics in Central Africa Since 18,000 yr BP: Pollen Records from the Interlacustrine Highlands of Burundi, Rwanda and Western Uganda. Journal of Biogeography 24(4): 495-512.

Kaplin, BA 2002. Terrestriality and the maintenance of the disjunct geographical distribution in the lhoesti group In M. Glenn, M. Cords, and A. Gautier-Hion, editors. The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Kaplin, BA and J.E. Lambert. 2002. Seed dispersal effectiveness by Cercopithecus monkeys: Implications for seed input into degraded areas. In Levey, D.J., Silva, W.R., and M. Galetti, editors. Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire,UK.

Kaplin, BA 2001. Ranging behavior of two species of forest guenons (Cercopithecus mitis doggetti and C. lhoesti) in the Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda. International Journal of Primatology 22(4): 521-548.

Kaplin, BA and T.C. Moermond. 2000. Foraging ecology of the mountain monkey: implications for its evolutionary history and use of disturbed forest. American Journal of Primatology 50(4):227-246.

Kaplin, BA and T.C. Moermond. 1998. Variation in seed handling by two species of forest monkeys in Rwanda. American Journal of Primatology 45:83-101.

Kaplin, BA, V. Munyaligoga, and T.C. Moermond. 1998. The influence of temporal changes in fruit availability on fruit eating and seed handling in blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis doggetti). Biotropica 30:56-71.

Kuerschner, Harald. 1995. Epiphytic moss associations in the Eastern Congo basin and the adjoining highlands (National Park Kahuzi-Biega/Zaire, Nyungwe Forest/Rwanda): Scientific results of the BRYOTROP-expedition to Zaire and Rwanda No.4. Nova Hedwigia 61(1-2):1-64.

Plumptre, A.J., M. Masozera, P.J. Fashing, A. McNeilage, C. Ewango, BA Kaplin, and I. Liengola. 2002. Biodiversity Surveys of the Nyungwe Forest Reserve in S.W. Rwanda. WCS Working Papers No. 18. Available for download from

Pomeroy, Derek. 1993. Centers of High Biodiversity in Africa. Conservation Biology 7(4):901-907.

Santiago, M.L., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Gross-Camp, N., Majewski, A.C., Masozera, M., Munanura, I., Kaplin, BA, Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M., and BA Hahn. 2003. Noninvasive detection of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in a wild-living l’hoest’s monkey (Cercopithecus lhoesti). Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 19(12): 1163-1166.

Sorg J-P (1978) La foret naturelle de Nyungwe (Rwanda): exploitation ou protection? Schweiz. Z. Forstwes. 129 445-452.

Sun, Chin; Beth A. Kaplin; Kurt A. Kristensen; Viateur Munyaligoga; Joseph Mvukiyumwami; Kanyoyo Ka Kajondo; Timothy C. Moermond. 1996. Tree Phenology in a Tropical Montane Forest in Rwanda. Biotropica 28(4):668-681.

Troupin, G. 1978. Flore du Rwanda : spermatophytes. Tervuren, Belgique : Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale.

Troupin, G. and D. M. Bridson. 1982. Flore des plantes ligneuses du Rwanda. Tervuren, Belgique : Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale.

Vedder, A. 1990. Conservation of Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda: primates as contributors to the science of conservation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 81(2):311-311.

Vedder A. and Fashing P.J. 2002. Diet of a 300-member Angolan colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis) supergroup in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 3:159-160 (Suppl. 34).

Verschuren, J. (1987) “checklist of mammals in the Nat. Parks of Zaire, Rwanda & Burundi” Bull Inst. R Sci Nat Belg Biol 57: 17-39 [Inst. Royal Sci Nat, 29 rue Vautier 1040 Brussels - also Mt. Nimba, Liberia 86].

Kamiranzovu References (East African Paleoecology)

Bouxin, G. (1974) Étude phytogéographique des plantes vasculaires du marais Kamiranzovu (forêt de Rugege, Rwanda). Bull.Jardin Bot.Nat.Belg. 44: 41-159.

Bouxin, G. (1976) Ordination and classification in the Upland Rugege Forest (Rwanda, Central Africa). Vegetatio 32: 97-115.

Bouxin, G. (1977) Structure de la strate arborescente dans un site de la forêt de montagne du Rwanda (Afrique Centrale). Vegetatio 33: 65-78.

Deuse, P. (1966) Contribution à l’étude des tourbières du Rwanda et du Burundi. INRS publication #4, 115pp.

Hamilton, A.C. (1976) The significance of patterns of distribution shown by forest plants and animals in tropical Africa for the reconstruction of upper Pleistocene palaeo-environment: a review. Palaeoecol. Afr. 9: 63-97.

Hamilton, A.C. (1982) Environmental history of East Africa.

Morrison, M. E. S. and A. C. Hamilton. 1974. Vegetation and Climate in the Uplands of South-Western Uganda During the Later Pleistocene Period: II. Forest Clearance and Other Vegetational Changes in the Rukiga Highlands During the Past 8000 Years. Journal of Ecology 62(1):1-31.

Unpublished Reports & Manuscripts

Bahigiki, Emmanuel et al. & Vedder, Dec. 1987. Étude socio-économique et propositions écologiques sur la forêt de Nyungwe – UGZ-3. (for MINAGRI), Kigali.

Budowski, G. 1975. Synthèse des propositions concernant ‘élaboration d’un programme de sauvegarde de la Forêt naturelle de Nyungwe. MAB (Man and Biosphere Program), Kigali.

Kräuter, H.J. 1994. Factors of historical and modern deforestation of Rwanda’s montane rainforests: A case study of the Nyungwe Forest Reserve. Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Kristensen, K.A. and T. Shaban. 1992. Report on gold mining activities in the Munronzi Watershed, Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. Unpublished report submitted to Natural Resources Management Project, USAID/DAI, Kigali, Rwanda. 32pp.

Kristensen, K.A. and R.A. Fimbel. 1994. Gold mining activities within the UGZ4 Management Zone, Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda. Unpublished report, PCFN, Cyangugu, Rwanda. 58pp.

PVO-NGO/NRMS Project, Oct. 1990. Buffer Zone management in Africa. Workshop proceedings.

Sun, Chin. Foraging ecology of three sympatric turacos (Musophagidae) and tree phenology in an afro-montane forest. 196 p. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Vedder, A.L. Nov. 1985. Rwanda. Agro-sylvo-pastoral project – Phase II, Ecological aspects of the project and natural forest conservation.

Vedder, A.L. July 1988. Technical analysis: Biodiversity Natural Resources Management Project, Rwanda (to IIED/AID-Rwanda).

Vedder, A.L. Jan. 1988. Conservation of the Nyungwe Forest Reserve. (to USAID)

Vedder, A.L. 1989. Feeding ecology and conservation of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). 274 p. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Related References – Conservation

Aderhold, E.L. & Weber, W. (1986) Development & applications of a geographic information system for natural resource management in Rwanda. Proc.Int.Symp.Remote Sens.Environ. 20: 659-668.

Bootsma, Harvey A. and Robert E. Hecky. 1993. Conservation of the African Great Lakes: A Limnological Perspective. Conservation Biology 7(3):644-656.

Hart, John A. and Jefferson S. Hall. 1996. Status of Eastern Zaire’s Forest Parks and Reserves. Conservation Biology 10(2):316-327.

Hart, Terese; John Hart; Cheryl Fimbel; Robert Fimbel; William F. Laurance; Carrie Oren; Thomas T. Struhsaker; Howard C. Rosenbaum; Peter D. Walsh; Yvette Razafindrakoto; Michel Vely; Rob DeSalle 1997. Conservation and Civil Strife: Two Perspectives from Central Africa. Conservation Biology 11(2):308-314.

Jacobson, S.K., editor. 1995. Conserving wildlife : international education and communication approaches. New York : Columbia University Press.

Kremen, Claire; Adina M. Merenlender; Dennis D. Murphy. 1994. Ecological Monitoring: A Vital Need for Integrated Conservation and Development Programs in the Tropics. Conservation Biology 8(2):388-397.

Pullan, R. A.. 1988. Conservation and the Development of National Parks in the Humid Tropics of Africa. Biogeography and Development in the Humid Tropics. Journal of Biogeography 15(1):171-183.

Sayer, Jeffrey A., Caroline S. Harcourt, N. Mark Collins ; editorial assistant, Clare Billington, editors. 1992. The conservation atlas of tropical forests : Africa. New York ; London : Simon & Schuster.

Shambaugh, J., J. Oglethorpe, R. Ham, and S. Tognetti. 2001. The Trampled Grass: Mitigating the impacts of armed conflict on the environment. Washington, DC, USA, Biodiversity Support Program. (see

Related References – Plant

Bamps, P. 1968. Flore du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi; index des lieux de récolte (cités dans les volumes I à X). Bruxelles, Belgium : Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.

Brenan, J. P. M.. 1978. Systematic Studies in Africa: The Twenty-Fourth Systematics Symposium; Some Aspects of the Phytogeography of Tropical Africa. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 65(2):437-478.

Flore d’Afrique Centrale (Zaire-Rwanda-Burundi) Repertoire des lieux de récolte. Meise, Belgium : Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.

Kalinganire, A. 1996. Performance of Grevillea robusta in plantations and on farms under varying environmental conditions in Rwanda. Forest Ecology and Management. 80(1-3): 279-285.

Niang, A., E. Styger, A. Gahamanyi, D. Hoekstra, and R. Coe. 1998. Fodder-quality improvement through contour planting of legume-shrub/grass mixtures in croplands of Rwanda highlands. Agroforestry Systems 39(3): 263-274.

Robyns, W. 1965. On the State of the Congo Flora. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 52(3)Robert E. Woodson, Jr. Memorial Issue: 427-431.

Rubayiza, A.B. and M. Meurens. 2005. Chemical discrimination of arabica and robusta coffees by fourier transform raman spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(12): 4654-4659.

Steiner, K.G. 1998. Using farmers’ knowledge of soils in making research results more relevant to field practice: experiences from Rwanda. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 69(3): 191-200.

Related References – Animal

Alin, Simone R.; Andrew S. Cohen; Roger Bills; Masta Mukwaya Gashagaza; Ellinor Michel; Jean-Jacques Tiercelin; Koen Martens; Peter Coveliers; Sima Keita Mboko; Kelly West; Michael Soreghan; Sona Kimbadi; Gaspard Ntakimazi. 1999. Effects of Landscape Disturbance on Animal Communities in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Conservation Biology 13(5):1017-1033.

Hutterer, R and W. Verheyen. 1985. A new species of shrew genus sylvisorex from Rwanda and Zaire: Insectivora soricidae. Zeitschrift fuer Saeugetierkunde 50(5):266-271.

Snoeks, J. 1994. The haplochromines (Teleostei, Cichlidae) of Lake Kivu (East Africa) : a taxonomic revision with notes on their ecology. Tervuren, België : Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika.

Vande Weghe J.-P. and Loiselle B. A. 1987. The bird fauna of Bururi Foresr Burundi. Gerfaut 77(2):147-164.

from Wildlife Review Mar, Jun. 1982; 1983 – Jun. 1990 (Cercopiths; Colobus; Rwanda; Burundi), CPR Jan-Aug. 1990 (Cercopiths; not vervets, Cercocebus or Colobus).

Related References – Social, Cultural, and Political

Gusinde, M. 1949. Die Twa-Pygmäen in Ruanda [microform] : Forschungsergebnisse im tropischen Afrika aus dem Jahre 1934. Wien-Mödling : Missionsdruckerei St. Gabriel.

Lewis, J. and J. Knight . 1995. The Twa of Rwanda : an assessment of the situation of the Twa and promotion of Twa rights in post-war Rwanda. Chadlington, UK : World Rainforest Movement ; Copenhagen : International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.

Schoenbrun, David Lee. 1998. A green place, a good place : agrarian change, gender, and social identity in the Great Lakes region to the 15th century. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann.

Taylor, C.C. 1992. Milk, honey and money : changing concepts in Rwandan healing. Washington : Smithsonian Institution Press.


Briggs, P. and J. Booth. 2001. Rwanda : the Bradt travel guide. Bradt Travel Guides ; Guilford, Conn. : Globe Pequot Press, 2001.

Cox, Betty Ellen and Gakuba Fuastin. Kinyarwanda for Beginners. (unpublished, hardcopy at PCFN, Uwinka, Rwanda).