Minority-Majority Relations Survey (MMRS) and American-International Relations Scale (AIRS)

Instrument Author:

Gargi R. Sodowsky


These acculturation instruments have been developed and used to study within and between group differences; acculturation of American ethnic immigrant groups, international groups, and first and second generation Asian Americans; relationships between acculturation and mental health issues (e.g., acculturative stress, interpersonal competence concerns, eating disorder attitudes, dissociative symptoms, and coping); and implications for counseling practice. In each measure, a subscale measures perceived prejudice.

Download The MMRS application form (PDF 66K)

Download The AIRS application form (PDF 66K)


Select Representative References

Cini, L.A. (2000). The role of acculturation in disordered eating attitudes, behaviors, and body image. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 61 (4-B), 1-96.

Corey, A.T. (2001). Correlates of Asian American college students’ career aspirations: Generational status, self-reports, and parental-reports on acculturation and perceived prejudice. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 61 (7-B), 1-138.

Frey, M., & Roysircar, G. (2006). South and East Asian international students’ perceived prejudice, acculturation, and frequency of help resource utilization. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 34, 208-222.

Frey, L. L., & Roysircar, G. (2004). Effects of acculturation and worldview for White American, South American, South Asian, and South East Asian students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 26, 229-248.

Gomes, S.L. (2000). Factors affecting Asian Indian selection of psychotherapy: Therapist ethnicity and therapy modality. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 61 (2-B), 1-122.

Harik-Williams, N. (2003). Willingness of international students to seek counseling. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64 (3-B), 1-170.

Kuo, B. C. H., & Roysircar, G. (2004). Predictors of acculturation for Chinese adolescents in Canada: Age of arrival, length of stay, social class, and English reading ability. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 143-154.

Kuo, B. C. H., & Roysircar, G. (2006). An exploratory study of cross-cultural adaptation of adolescent Taiwanese unaccompanied sojourners in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 159-183.

Miranda, A.O. & Umhoefer, D.L. (1998). Acculturation, language use, and demographic variables as predictors of the career self-efficacy of Latino career counseling clients. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 26(1), 39-51.

Osvold, L., & Sodowsky, G. R. (1995). Eating attitudes of Native American and African American women: Differences by race and acculturation. Explorations in Ethnic Studies, 18, 187 210.

Papadopoulos, Y. (2002). The relationship between acculturation and racial identity attitudes in Greek immigrants. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 62 (10-B), 1-102.

Roysircar, G. (2003). Understanding immigrants: Acculturation theory and research. In F. D. Harper & J. McFadden (Eds.), Culture and counseling: New approaches (pp. 164-185). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Roysircar, G. (2004). Counseling and psychotherapy for acculturation and ethnic identity concerns with immigrants and international student clients. In T. B. Smith, (Ed.), Practicing multiculturalism: Affirming diversity in counseling and psychology (pp 248-268). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Roysircar, G. & Pimpinella, E. (in press). Refugees. In F.T. L. Leong (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Counseling (Vol. 4). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Roysircar, G., & Pimpinella, E. (in press). Immigrants. In F.T. L. Leong (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Counseling (Vol. 4). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Roysircar, G., & Pimpinella, E. (in press). Second culture acquisition. In F.T. L. Leong (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Counseling (Vol. 4). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., & Frey, L. L. (2003). Children of immigrants: Their worldviews value conflicts. In P. Pedersen & J. C. Carey (Eds.), Multicultural counseling in schools: A practical handbook (pp. 61-83). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., & Maestas, M. V. (2002). Assessment of acculturation and cultural variables. In K. S. Kurasaki, S. Okazaki, & S. Sue (Eds.), Asian American mental health: Assessment theories and methods (pp. 77-94). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., & Kuo, P. Y. (2001). Determining cultural validity of personality assessment: Some guidelines. D. Pope-Davis & H. Coleman (Eds.), The intersection of race, class, & gender: Implications for multicultural counseling (pp. 213-239). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., & Maestas, M. (2000). Acculturation, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress: Evidence and measurement. In R. H. Dana (Ed.), Handbook of cross cultural and multicultural personality assessment (pp. 131-172). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sera, E.J. (2001). Men and spousal bereavement. A cross-cultural study of majority-culture and Hispanic men and the role of religiosity and acculturation on grief. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 61 (11-B), 1-140.

Sodowsky, G. R., Lai, E. W. M., & Plake, B. (1991). Moderating effects of sociocultural variables on acculturation attitudes of Hispanics and Asian Americans. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 194 204.

Sodowsky, G. R., & Plake, B. (1991). Psychometric properties of the American-International Relations Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 207-216.

Sodowsky, G. R., & Plake, B. (1992). A study of acculturation differences among international people and suggestions for sensitivity to within-group differences. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71(1), 53-59.

Sodowsky, G. R., & Carey, J. C. (1987). Asian Indian immigrants in America: Factors related to adjustment. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 15, 129-141.

Sodowsky, G. R., & Carey, J. C. (1988). Relationship between acculturation-related demographics and cultural attitudes of Asian Indian immigrants. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 16, 117-136.

Taufique, S.P. (2004). Ethnically diverse, pregnant adolescents’ definitions of child abuse and neglect. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 65 (3-B), 1-156.