Roysircar, G., Gard, G., Hubbell, R., Ortega, M., & Webster, D. (2002). Relationships of client evaluations of outcome, observer reports, and counselor self-reports of multicultural counseling competencies: A Rashomon effect. Manuscript submitted for publication.
The study showed that a ten-week educational and experiential training model for multicultural counseling resulted in increased self-reported multicultural competency for counselor trainees (n= 67) and increased Well-Being for their minority clients (n=67). Likewise, those counselors who showed significant and reliable change from pre- to posttest scores in self-reported Multicultural Counseling Competency were associated with higher client reports of Help-Seeking Attitudes, Well-Being, Liking-Satisfaction, and Effectiveness, and observer judgments of Positive Multicultural Thoughts in counselor process notes. Finally, the variance in pre-post multicultural competency change scores was largely explained by client reports, observer ratings, and counselor Multicultural Social Desirability (the last predictor in the negative direction). This study indicated that when studying self-reported increased multicultural competence over time, which was evaluated as clinically significant reliable change, counselor self-evaluation could be corroborated by external sources, their minority clients and other counselor observers.
Copyright © Gargi Roysircar, Department of Clinical Psychology, Antioch University New England, 4/5/02
Akutsu, P. D., Lin, C. H., & Zane, N. W. S. (1990). Predictors of utilization intent of counseling among Chinese and White students: A test of the proximal-distal model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 445-452.
Authors. (1998, August). Multicultural relationship competency: Counseling process and outcome with ESL adolescents. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Conference, San Francisco.
Authors. (1999, August). Empirical validity of multicultural competencies: Therapist, client, and supervisor self-reports. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.
Authors. (2000, August). Therapist cultural content and process thoughts: Relationships with multicultural competencies. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.
Authors. (in press). Experiential training in multicultural counseling: Implementation and evaluation. In G. Roysircar, D. S. Sandhu, & V. B. Bibbins (Eds.), Multicultural competencies: A guidebook of practices. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Britten-Powell, C. S. (2001). Symposium: Confounded by political correctness? Meeting the critics’ challenges. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cohen, J. (1992). Quantitative methods in psychology: A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.
Comaz-Diaz L., & Jacobsen, F. A. (1995). Ethnocultural transference and countertransference in the therapeutic dyad. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 392-402.
Constantine, M. G. (2001). Predictors of satisfaction with counseling: Racial and ethnic minority clients’ attitudes toward counseling and ratings of their therapists’ general and multicultural counseling competence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 456-462.
Constantine, M. G. (in press). Predictors of observer ratings of multicultural counseling competence in trainees. Journal of Counseling Psychology.
Constantine, M. G., & Ladany, N. (2000). Self-report multicultural counseling competence scales: Their relation to social desirability attitudes and multicultural case conceptualization ability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 155-164.
Cook, D. A., & Helms, J. E. (1988). Visible racial/ethnic group supervisees’ satisfaction with cross-cultural supervision as predicated by relationship characteristics. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35, 268-274.
Cresswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
D’Andrea, M., Daniels, J., & Heck, R. (1991). Evaluating the impact of multicultural counseling training. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 143-150.
Fisher, E. H., & Turner J. L. (1970). Orientation to seeking professional help: Development and research utility of an attitude scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35, 79-90.
Franklin, A. J. (1999). Invisibility syndrome and racial identity development in
psychotherapy and counseling African American men. The Counseling Psychologist, 27, 761-793.
Fuertes, J. N., & Brobst, K. (in press). Clients’ perspectives of therapist multicultural competence. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology.
Granello, H. G.,Wheaton, J. E., & Miranda, A. (1998). Multicultural counseling competencies of practicing rehabilitation counselors. Rehabilitation Education, 12, 237-250.
Granello, D. H., & Wheaton, J. E. (1998). Self-perceived multicultural competencies of African American and European American vocational rehabilitation counselors. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 42, 2-15.
Hill, C. E., Thompson, B. J., & Williams, E. N. (1997). A guide to conducting consensual qualitative research. The Counseling Psychologist, 25, 517-572.
Helms, J.E. (1992). A Race Is a Nice Thing to Have: A Guide to Being A White Person or Understanding the White Persons in Your Life. Topeka, KS: Content Communications.
Ibrahim, F. A. (1985). Effective cross-cultural counseling and psychotherapy: A framework. The Counseling Psychologist, 13, 625-683.
Ihle, G. M., Sodowsky, G. R., & Kwan, K. L. (1996). Worldviews of women Comparisons between White American clients, White American therapists, and Chinese international students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74, 300-306.
Ivey, A. E. (1995). Psychotherapy as liberation: Toward specific skills and strategies in multicultural counseling and therapy. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L.A. Suzuki, C. A. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Jacobson, N. S. & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 559, 12-19.
Katz, J. H. (1985). The sociopolitical nature of counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 13, 615-624.
LaFromboise, T.D. (1992). An interpersonal analysis of affinity, clarification, and helping responses with American Indians. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 23, 281-286.
LaFromboise, T. D., Coleman, H. L., & Hernandez, A. (1991). Development and factor structure of the Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 22, 380-388.
LaSala, M. C. (1997). Client satisfaction; Consideration of correlates and response bias. Families in Society, 78, 54-64.
LeCompte, M.D., Millroy, W. L., & Preissle, J. (Eds). (1992). The handbook of qualitative research in education. Academic Press, Inc.
Matzman, S. (2001). The specific ingredients are in the match: Comments on Ahn and Wampold (2001). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 258-261.
Martinez, R. P., & Holloway, E. L. (1997). The supervision relationship in multicultural training. In D. B. Pope-Davis, & L.
K. H. Coleman (Eds.), Multicultural counseling competencies: Assessment, education and training, and supervision (pp 325-349). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Maultsby, M. C. (1982). A historical view of Blacks- mistrust of psychiatry. In S. M. Turner & R. T. Jones (Eds.), Behavior modification in Black populations: Psychosocial issues and empirical findings (pp. 39-55). New York: Plenum.
Minuro, J. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1950). Rashomon [Motion picture]. Japan: Daiei Studios.
Ottavi, T. M., Pope-Davis, D. B., & Dings, J. G. (1994). Relationship between racial identity attitudes and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 149-154.
Pedersen, P. (1985). Ten frequent assumptions of cultural bias in counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 15, 16-24.
Ponterotto, J. G., Rieger, B. P., Barrett, A., & Sparks, R., Sanchez, C. M., & Magids, D. (1996). Development and initial validation of the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale. In G. R. Sodowsky & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Multicultural assessment in counseling and clinical psychology (pp. 247 – 282). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Pope-Davis, D. B., Eliason, M. J., & Ottavi, T. M. (1994). Are nursing students multicultrally competent? An exploratory investigation. Journal of Nursing Education, 33, 31-33.
Pope-Davis, D. B., & Nielson, D. (1996). Assessing multicultural counseling competencies using the Multicultural Counseling Inventory: A review of the research. In G. R. Sodowsky & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Multicultural assessment in counseling and clinical psychology (325-343). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Pope-Davis, D. B., & Ottavi, T. M. (1994). Examining the association between self-reported multicultural counseling and demographic variables among counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 651-654.
Pope-Davis, D. B., Prieto, L.R., Whitaker, C. M., & Pope-Davis, S. A. (1993). Exploring multicultural competencies of occupational therapists: Implications for education and training. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47, 838-844.
Pope-Davis, D. B., Reynolds, A, L., Dings, J. G., & Nielsen, D. (1995). Examining multicultural competencies of graduate students in psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 322-329.
Pope-Davis, D.B., Toporek, R. L., Ortega-Villalobos, L., D., Ligiero, D., Brittan-Powell, C. S., Liu, W. M., Bashshur, M., Codrington, J., Liang, C. (in press).
Client Perspectives of Multicultural Counseling Competence: A Qualitative Examination. The Counseling Psychologist.
Roysircar, G. (in press). Immigrants and international students: Therapy for acculturation and ethnic identity concerns. In T. Smith, & P. S. Richards (Eds), Practicing multiculturalism. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Roysircar, G., & Gard, G. (2001). Research in multicultural counseling: Impact of counselor variables on process and outcome. In C. Lee (Ed.), Multicultural issues in counseling: New approaches to diversity (3rd edition). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Seligman, M. (1994). The effectiveness of psychotherapy: The Consumer Reports study. American Psychologist, 50, 965-974.
Smith, E. M. J. (1985). Ethnic minorities: Life stress, social support, and mental health issues. The Counseling Psychologist, 13, pp. 537-579.
Sodowsky, G. R. (1996). The Multicultural Counseling Inventory: Validity and applications in multicultural training. In G. R. Sodowsky & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Multicultural assessment in counseling and clinical psychology (pp. 283-324). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute.
Sodowsky, G. R., Kuo-Jackson, P. Y., Richardson, M. F., & Corey, A. T. (1998). Correlates of self-reported multicultural competencies: Therapist multicultural social desirability, race, social inadequacy, locus of control racial ideology, and multicultural training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 256-264.
Sodowsky, G. R., & Taffe, R. C. (1991). Counselor trainees’ analyses of multicultural counseling videotapes. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 19 (3), 115-130.
Sodowsky, G. R., Taffe, R. C., Gutkin, T. B., & Wise, S. L. (1994). Development of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory: A self-report measure of multicultural competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 137-148.
Sue, D. W., Arrendondo, P., & McDavies, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: a call to the profession. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20, 64-68.
Sue, D. W. (2001). Multidimensional facets of cultural competence. The Counseling Psychologist, 29, 790-821.
Sue, D. W., Bernier, J. E., Durran, A., Feinberg, L., Pedersen, P., Smith, E. J., &
Vazquez-Nuttal, E. (1982). Position paper: Cross-cultural counseling competencies. The Counseling Psychologist, 10, 45-52.
Sue, S. (1998). In search of cultural competence in psychotherapy and counseling. American Psychologist, 53, 440-448.
Thompson, C. E., & Jenal, S. T. (1994). Interracial and intraracial quasi-counseling interactions when therapists avoid discussing race. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 484-491.
Thompson, C. E., Worthington, R., & Atkinson, D. R. (1994). Therapist content orientation, therapist race, and Black women’s cultural mistrust and self-disclosure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 155-161.
Wheaton, J. E., & Granello, D. H. (1998). The multicultural counseling competencies of state vocational rehabilitation counselors. Rehabilitation Education, 12, 51-64.
Vontress, C. E., (1971). Racial differences: Impediments to rapport. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 18, 7-13.
Wampold, B. E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wampold, B. E., Ahn, H., & Coleman, H. L. K. (2001). Medical model as a metaphor: Old habits die hard. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 268-273.
Whaley, L.A. (2001). Cultural mistrust and mental health services for African Americans: A review and meta-analysis. Counseling Psychologist, 29, 513-531.
Worthington, R. L., Mobely, M., Franks, R. P., & Tan, J. A. (2000). Multicultural counseling competencies: Verbal content, counselor attributions, and social desirability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 460-468.
Wrenn (1962). The culturally encapsulated therapist. Harvard Educational Review, 32, 444-449.