Multicultural Counseling Inventory

(MCI, Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994)

Gargi Roysircar’s article, Correlates of self-reported multicultural competencies: Counselor multicultural social desirability, race, social inadequacy, locus of control racial ideology, and multicultural training (Sodowsky, Kuo-Jackson, Frey, & Corey, 1998) has contributed to the rising Impact Factor of the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP). In 2007, this article was among the articles most responsible for making JCP the most cited applied psychology journal within the Web of Science database. In particular, Roysircar’s article was ranked 13th with 48 citations since its publication by JCP in 1998. Generally, citations of an article decline two years after its publication. However, Roysircar’s study, which used the Multicultural Counseling Inventory, continues to be referenced strongly 10 years after its publication.

This instrument measures multicultural counseling competencies: Multicultural Counseling Skills, Multicultural Awareness, Multicultural Counseling Relationship, and Multicultural Counseling Knowledge. Its psychometric properties and validity have been studied through several studies.

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MCI Dissertation Abstracts


Instrument Author:

Gargi R. Sodowsky


Select Representative References

Barise, A. (2000). The effectiveness of case-based instruction vs. the lecture-discussion method in multicultural social work. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 61 (6-A), 1-186.

Beck, S. C. (2003). Multicultural counseling competence as a function of multicultural counseling training in doctoral counseling psychology programs. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 63 (8-B), 1-80.

Bellini, J. (2002). Correlates of multicultural counseling competencies of vocational rehabilitation counselors. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 45(2), 66-75.

Bellini, J. (2003). Counselors’ multicultural competencies and vocational rehabilitation outcomes in the context of counselor-client racial similarity and difference. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 46(3), 164-173.

Blair, D.K, & Coyle, C. (2005). An examination of multicultural competencies of entry level certified therapeutic recreation specialists. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 39(2), 139-157.

Blair, D.K. (2004). Multicultural competency and multicultural conflicts encountered by entry level certified therapeutic recreation specialists. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64 (7-B), 1-178.

Boero, J. V. (2002). Construct validity of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory: The impact of ethnic identity, social desirability biases, and modern racism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 63 (5-B), 1-180.

Boyle, D.P. & Springer, A. (2001). Toward a cultural competence measure for social work with specific populations. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 9(3-4), 53-71.

Chao, R.C.L. (2006). Counselors’ multicultural competencies: From gender and ethnicity perspectives. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 67 (1-B), 1-117.

Christensen, C.H. (2002). Therapist cultural sensitivity and premature termination rates with ethnic minority adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 62 (10-B), 1-153.

Constantine, M., Fuertes J., & Roysircar, G. (in press).Multicultural counseling competencies: Practice, training, and research implications. In B. Walsh, N. Fouad, R. Fassinger, B. Wampold, & R. Carter (Eds.). Biennial review of counseling psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Crawford, J.K. (2001). An examination of racial identity and attitudes, perceived cultural competence, and level of academic training of European-American graduate students with culturally diverse clients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 62 (2-B), 1-67.

D’Andrea, M., Daniels, J., Noonan, M.J. (2003). New developments in the assessment of multicultural competence: The Multicultural Awareness Knowledge-Skills Survey – Teacher’s Form. In W.M. Liu, R.L. Toporek, D.B. Pope-Davis & H.L.K. Coleman (Eds), Handbook of Multicultural Competence: In Counseling & Psychology. (pp. 154-167). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Daniel, J. H., Roysircar, G., Abeles, N., & Boyd, C. (2004). Individual and cultural diversity competence: Focus on the therapist. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 25(4), 255-267.

Dugan, K. P. (2002). Relationship of counselor professional affiliation and counselor values. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 63 (2-B), 1-143.

Gillispie, J. F. (1999). Construct validation of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory: The contribution of client satisfaction. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 59 (8-B), 1-115.

Goodwin, R.B. (2000). The efficacy of a self-examination study of racial/ethnic heritage concerning Black/White romantic unions in improving multicultural counseling competency. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 60 (11-B), 1-180.

Granello, D. H., & Wheaton, J. E. (1998). Self-perceived multicultural competencies of African American and European American vocational rehabilitation counselors. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 42, 2- 15.

Green, R.G., Kiernan-Stern, M., Balley, K., Chambers, K., Claridge, R., Jones, G., Kitson, G., Leek, S., Leisey, M., Vadas, K., & Walker, K. (2005). The Multicultural Counseling Inventory: A measure for evaluating social work student and practitioner self-perceptions of their multicultural competence. Journal of Social Work Education, 41(2), 191-208.

Havens, L.D. (2007). The relationship between self-perceived and demonstrated multicultural counseling competence: The development of a behavioral measure. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 67 (7-B), 1-187.

Horowitz, J.L. (2006). Culture-bound syndromes of anxiety disorders and multicultural competence. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 66 (7-B), 1-104.

Hung, M. K. (2001). Multicultural counseling competencies of clinical and counseling psychology graduate students and interns. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 61 (2-B), 1-76.

Hunt, W.L. (2005). Using the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) to assess multicultural counseling competence: A review of the literature. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 65 (9-B), 1-145.

Kelly, J. A. (1998). The relationships between counselor white racial identity attitudes, methods of clinical training, and self-perceptions of multicultural counseling competencies. Dissertation Abstracts, 59, 1472.

Leech, L. L. (1999). The effects of impairment on the acquisition of basic counseling competencies. Dissertation Abstracts, 59, 2362.

Mckee-Williams, A. (2007). Self-ratings of multicultural competency by consulting school psychologists. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 67 (12-B), 1-108.

Menapace, B. R. (1998).Correlates of effectiveness for white psychotherapists working with African American clients: Multicultural competence, clinical experience, racial consciousness, multicultural training, and social experience. Dissertation Abstracts, 58, 5130.

Moss, C. M. (1998). Relationships among educational and demographic variables, rated counselor effectiveness, and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. Dissertation Abstracts, 58, 3022.

Ortega, M.D. (2007). Racial and ethnic minority students’ perceptions of clinical psychology training environments. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 68 (2-B), 1-84.

Panici, R.M. (2002). Ego development, personal and educational experience, and multicultural counseling competence among counseling students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62 (9-A), 1-154.

Ponterotto, J.G. & Potere, J.C. (2003). The Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS): Validity, reliability and user guidelines. In W.M. Liu, R.L. Toporek, D.B. Pope-Davis & H.L.K. Coleman (Eds), Handbook of Multicultural Competence: In Counseling & Psychology. (pp. 137-153). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Ponterotto, J. G. (1994). Assessing multicultural counseling competence: A review of instrumentation. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 316-322.

Pike, J.L. (2002). Characteristics of mental health professionals and the influence of culture of client on determination of child sexual abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 63 (2-B), 1-119.

Pope-Davis, D. B., & Dings, J. G. (1995). The assessment of multicultural counseling competencies. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L.A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander. (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (pp. 287-311). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Pope-Davis, D. B., Reynolds, A. L., Dings, J. G., & Nielson, D. (1995). Examining multicultural counseling competencies of graduate students in psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 322-329.

Pope-Davis, D. B., & Dings, J. G. (1994). An empirical comparison of two self-report multicultural counseling competency inventories. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 27, 93-102.

Pope-Davis, D. B., & Ottavi, T. M. (1994). Examining the association between self-reported multicultural counseling competencies and demographic variables among counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 651-654.

Robles-Pina, R.A. (2002). A survey of school counselor’s multicultural counseling competencies. TCA Journal, 30(1), 45-55.

Robles-Pina, R.A., & McPherson, R.H. (2002). The relationship between educational and demographic variables and supervisor’s multicultural counseling competencies. Clinical Supervisor, 20(2), 67-79.

Roysircar, G., Webster, D.R., Germer, J., Palensky, J.J., Lynne, E., Campbell, G. R., Yang, Y., Liu, J., & Blodgett-McDeavitt, J. (2003). Experiential training in multicultural counseling: Implementation and evaluation of counselor process. In V.E. Bibbins, G. Roysircar, & D.S. Sandhu (Eds.). Multicultural Competencies: A Guidebook of Practices (pp.3-15). Alexandria, VA: Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development.

Roysircar, G. (2003). Counselor awareness of own assumptions, values, and biases. In G. Roysircar, P. Arredondo, J. N. Fuertes, J. G. Ponterotto, and R. L. Toporek. (Eds.) Multicultural competencies 2003: Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (pp. 15-26). Alexandria, VA: AMCD, ACA.

Roysircar, G. (2005). Research in multicultural counseling: Client needs and counselor competencies. In C. Lee (Ed.), Multicultural issues in counseling: New approaches to diversity (3rd edition) (369-387). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Roysircar, G. (2005). Culturally sensitive assessment, diagnosis, and guidelines. In M. G. Constantine & D. W. Sue (Eds.), Strategies for building multicultural competence in mental health and educational settings (pp. 19-38). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Roysircar G., Gard, G., Hubbell R., & Ortega, M. (2005). Development of counseling trainees’ multicultural awareness through mentoring ESL students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33, 17-36.

Roysircar, G., Hubbell, R., & Gard, G. (2003). Multicultural research on counselor and client variables: A relational perspective. In D. Pope-Davis, H.L.K. Coleman, W.M. Liu, & R. L. Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural competencies (pp 247-282). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Roysircar, G., Webster, D. R., Germer, J., Palensky, J. J., Lynne, E., Campbell, G., et al. (2003). Experiential training in multicultural counseling: Implementation and evaluation of counselor process. In G. Roysircar, D. S. Sandhu, & V. B. Bibbins (Eds.), Multicultural competencies: A guidebook of practices (pp. 3-15). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, Huynh, U., Potter, B., Preston, P., Taliouridis, C., Utsch, H. (2001, study in progress). Multicultural counseling competencies: An outcome evaluation study.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., Kitaoka, S. K., Xia G., & Le, M. H. (2000, August). Counselor cultural content and process orientation: Relationships with multicultural competencies. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association, Washington D.C.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., Liu, J., Webster D., Yang, Y., Germer, J., Lynne, E. M., Kerr, G. C., Blodgett-McDeavitt, J., & Palensky, J. E. J., (1999, August). Empirical validity of multicultural competencies: Counselor, client, and supervisor self-reports. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association, Boston.

Rubin, S. E., Davis, E. L., Noe, S. R., & Turner, T. N. (1996). Assessing the effects of continuing multicultural rehabilitation counseling education. Rehabilitation Education, 10, 115-126.

Salvador, C. M. (1998). Effects of the intercultural awareness development courses on first year students’ multicultural competency. Dissertation Abstracts, 58, 5874.

Seay, E.M. (2003). The relationship between black racial identity attitudes and self-reported multicultural counseling competency. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 63 (10-B), 1-102.

Sodowsky, G.R., Kuo-Jackson, P.Y., Frey-Richardson, M., & Corey, A.T. (1998). Correlates of self-reported multicultural competencies: Counselor multicultural social desirability, race, and social inadequacy, locus of control racial ideology, and multicultural training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45 (3), 256-264.

Sodowsky, G. R. (1996). The Multicultural Counseling Inventory: Validity and applications in multicultural training. In G. R. Sodowsky & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Multicultural assessment in counseling and clinical psychology (pp. 283-324). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

Sodowsky, G. R., Kuo-Jackson, Y. P., & Loya, G. J. (1996). Outcome of training in the philosophy of assessment: Multicultural counseling competencies. In D. Pope-Davis & H. Coleman (Eds.), Multicultural counseling competencies: Assessment, education and training, and supervision. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Sodowsky, G. R., Taffe, R. C., Gutkin, T. B., & Wise, S. (1994). Development of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI): A self-report measure of multicultural competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 137-148.

Sodowsky, G. R., Webster, D. R., Palensky, J. E. J., Blodgett-McDeavitt J., Kerr, G. C., Germer, A. K., Lynne, E. M., & Yang, Y (1998, August). Multicultural relationship competency: Counseling process and outcome with ESL adolescents. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.

Wheaton, J. E., & Granello, D. H. (1998). The multicultural counseling competencies of state vocational rehabilitation counselors. Rehabilitation Education,12, 51-64.

Whitney, J.M. (2007). Self-perceived multicultural counseling competence of licensed professional counselors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 67 (10-A), 1-202.

Williams, C.C. (2005). Training for cultural competence: Individual and group processes. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 14, (1-2), 111-143.

Wilson-Duff, M. (2006). Self-reported competence and provider interest in multicultural training and supervision. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 66 (12-B), 1-103.