MCI Dissertation Abstracts: 1996-2002

Title: Contributions of perceived cultural ambience and instructional strategies to students’ multicultural competencies and attitudes toward ethnic/racial diversity and multiculturalism
Pub No: 3050789
Author: Dickson, Ginger Lee
Degree: PhD
School: The University of Iowa
Date: 2002
Pages: 204
Adviser: Jepsen, David A.
ISBN: 0-493-65360-0
Source: DAI-A 63/04, p. 1264, Oct 2002
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519)

Abstract: The purpose of the project was to describe students’ perceptions of the multicultural environment or cultural ambience of 148 counselor education programs across the nation and to predict the multicultural competencies and prejudicial attitudes of 516 students within those programs. Master’s level counseling students completed a web-based survey that included the Multicultural Environment Inventory-Revised (MEI-R), Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), Multicultural Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), Quick Discrimination Index (QDI), and a demographic questionnaire.

In general, students perceived the programs as making more than a moderate effort to address multicultural issues, citing the strongest efforts in the areas of honest recruitment and climate and comfort, followed by the areas of multicultural research and curriculum and supervision. On average, students’ reports indicated that multicultural training in most of the programs included the use of multiple instructional strategies. Students from most of the programs reported at least moderate exposure to racially and ethnically diverse clients in their practica, while exposure to multicultural issues in supervision was reported to a lesser extent. Students described themselves as relatively multiculturally competent, sensitive to issues of gender and racial equity, and relatively comfortable with inter-racial contact.

Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of student multicultural competencies and prejudicial attitudes. Social desirability was controlled statistically. Students’ aggregate ratings of the cultural ambience of counselor education programs were significant predictors of scores of multicultural skills and knowledge, attitudes toward racial and gender equity, and ratings of the importance of multicultural training. Ratings of traditional instructional strategies accounted for significant incremental variance in scores of multicultural knowledge, but ratings of participatory instructional strategies were the significant predictors of scores of comfort with inter-racial contact. Ratings of multicultural practica and multicultural supervision accounted for significant score variance in scores of multicultural relationship and awareness and ratings of the importance of multicultural training. Finally, students’ attitudes of social justice accounted for significant score variance on the total MCI. Implications for training and research are discussed.


Title: Relationship of counselor professional affiliation and counselor values
Pub No: 3042275
Author: Dugan, Kevin Patrick
Degree: PhD
School: Ball State University
Date: 2002
Pages: 143
Adviser: Gordon, Phyllis
ISBN: 0-493-55822-5
Source: DAI-B 63/02, p. 1020, Aug 2002
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622)

Abstract: Therapist variables are considered an important research topic, because studies suggest Was clients improve in therapy their values shift towards that of their therapist. This study examined the relationship of professional counseling affiliation and counselor values. Five hundred surveys were sent nationally to counselors based on their membership in the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC), the American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA), and the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD). Counselors completed a questionnaire which was comprised of a subset of the Jensen and Bergin Mental Health Value Instrument, the Religious Commitment Inventory-10, and the Multicultural Counseling Inventory.

Based on their primary affiliation as either a Christian, Multicultural, or General Mental Health counselor a final sample of 129 respondents was obtained. Group scores were analyzed through MANOVA and ANOVA techniques. The results of this survey found no differences among the various counseling groups for the mental health value of Autonomy or Self-growth. Christian counselors were found to report higher levels of the mental health value of Religiosity and Religious Commitment. Multicultural counselors were found to report higher levels of multicultural counseling competencies, especially in the areas of Multicultural Counseling Awareness and Multicultural Counseling Knowledge. These findings support the notion that there are differences in values among counselors based on their professional affiliation. Accordingly, it is suggested that future research efforts continue to examine the effect of professional counselor affiliation on counselor values. Special consideration should also be given to researching the process by which counselor values affect change in the part of their clients. Finally, counselors are encouraged in their therapeutic practice to be aware of their operative value systems and share them with their clients as part of an informed consent.


Title: Multicultural and diversity issues in counseling field supervision
Pub No: 3042901
Author: Durham, Judith Clayton
Degree: PhD
School: The University of Connecticut
Date: 2002
Pages: 169
Adviser: Karan, Orv
ISBN: 0-493-56759-3
Source: DAI-A 63/02, p. 508, Aug 2002
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: The present study examined field supervisors’ multicultural competence and the inclusion of multicultural and diversity issues in field supervision within masters’ degree counselor training programs. Changing demographics in the United States have necessitated that counseling move away from the ethnocentric framework that has dominated the field. Consequently, professional organizations and academic institutions now include a multicultural component to training. However, much counselor training takes place with supervisors in the field, many of whom were trained prior to multicultural and diversity issues being included in academic programs.

This study was designed to begin to address the scarcity of theoretical knowledge and the lack of empirical scholarship relating to multicultural supervision, by assessing field supervisors’ multicultural competency. It is hoped that this research will assist academic institutions in providing support and training opportunities for field supervisors. The Multicultural Counseling Competencies (Sue, Bernier, Durran, Feinberg, Pedersen, Smith, & Vasquez-Nuttal, 1982; Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992) were used as the theoretical model for measuring multicultural competence. Specifically, the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) (Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) was used to asses the multicultural competence of counseling students’ field supervisors, and a researcher designed survey, the Questionnaire for Field Supervisors, (QFS) (Durham, 1999) was used to assess the inclusion of multicultural and diversity issues in the process of supervision. Selected demographic variables, including supervisors’ gender (Carter, 1990), race/ethnicity (Holcomb-McCoy & Myers, 1999; Ponterotto & Casas, 1987), exposure to diverse populations (Pope-Davis & Ottavi, 1994; Sodowsky et al., 1991), years since graduate training (Ponterotto & Casas, 1987), and formal training in supervision (Durham, 1999) which have been previously associated with multicultural competence were correlated with the field supervisors’ multicultural competence and the inclusion of multicultural issues in supervision.

The study indicates that multicultural training, (e.g. formal course work, seminars, and workshops) increases supervisors’ multicultural competence as indicated by MCI Total, Awareness, and Knowledge scores. Also, the inclusion of multicultural issues within supervision is related to multicultural competence, again as measured by the MCI. And finally, being female and professional employment in a multiculturally diverse geographic area is correlated with the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge and Skills MCI scores.


Title: Characteristics of mental health professionals and the influence of culture of client on determination of child sexual abuse
Pub No: 3042476
Author: Pike, Julie Lisabeth
Degree: PhD
School: University of Kentucky
Date: 2002
Pages: 119
Adviser: Stilwell, William E. III
ISBN: 0-493-56135-8
Source: DAI-B 63/02, p. 1044, Aug 2002
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Sociology, Criminology and Penology (0627); Health Sciences, Mental Health (0347)

Abstract: A significant lack of research exists regarding the influence of culture and characteristics of mental health professionals on determination of whether child sexual abuse (CSA) has occurred in legally ambiguous situations. The purpose of this study was to examine how specific characteristics of mental health professionals (MHPs) affect how they determine whether sexual abuse has happened wherein culture is a salient factor. Potential participants for this research were recruited through electronic mail. All data collection was conducted via the Internet.

Participants were presented with a hypothetical case vignette describing a situation where there was a question of sexual abuse, and wherein Latino culture was a salient factor. Respondents were then asked to complete three brief surveys: the Clinical Impressions Questionnaire, the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (Sodowsky, Taffee, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994), and a Demographic Questionnaire. These measures were designed to provide the professionals’ determination of whether abuse had occurred, case conceptualizations, level of multicultural competence, and basic information regarding participant demographics and levels of expertise with various populations.

A total of 393 responses were gathered. Results indicated that higher levels of expertise with childhood sexual abuse and higher level of education predicted more accurate determination of abuse. Additionally, female mental health professionals, as well as those with greater number of years in practice, with higher percentages of ethnic minority/international clients in current caseload, and higher levels of expertise with minority clients evinced higher levels of multicultural competence overall. Further, MHPs with higher levels of multicultural competence were less likely to call Child Protective Services to report suspected CSA. Suggestions for future research in this area are made, so that training and education of mental health professionals might be improved to ensure accurate and culturally sensitive determination of sexual abuse.


Title: The relationship between Black racial identity attitudes and self-reported multicultural counseling competency
Pub No: 3066528
Author: Seay, Elicia M.
Degree: PhD
School: Howard University
Date: 2002
Pages: 102
Adviser: Ibrahim, Farah
ISBN: 0-493-85815-6
Source: DAI-B 63/10, p. 4924, Apr 2003
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Black Studies (0325); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631)

Abstract: As a result of the dramatic demographic transformation in the United States in the past decade, there has been a growing concern regarding the mental health needs of minority populations. Several studies have been conducted to investigate variables that improve multicultural competencies. This investigation examined the extent to which multicultural counseling competency is related to racial identity development, multicultural education and multicultural experience. Black counseling psychology graduate students (N = 57) completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale (BRIAS), the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), and a Personal Data Sheet. Intercorrelations amongst all the variables, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the level of variability with each of the MCI subscales. The majority of the intercorrelations were not statistically significant and revealed mostly weak relationships. Nevertheless, the findings allow the researcher to reject the Null Hypothesis, due to the significant relationships amongst the Black racial identity attitudes, multicultural education, multicultural experience, and self-reported multicultural counseling competency. Regression analysis revealed that the Black racial identity attitude subscales were the best predictors of multicultural counseling competency. Of the Black racial identity attitude subscales, the Pre-Encounter and Encounter subscales were the best predictors. Racial identity development was found to be the best predictor of multicultural counseling competency for this study. This study provides support for the inclusion of racial identity development to be addressed in counseling psychology training programs to prepare future mental health professionals for a multicultural and diverse world.


Title: Evaluation of an educational intervention to increase cultural competence in social workers
Pub No: NQ69254
Author: Williams, Charmaine Cordelia
Degree: PhD
School: University of Toronto (Canada)
Date: 2002
Pages: 231
Adviser: Tsang, A. Ka Tat
ISBN: 0-612-69254-X
Source: DAI-A 63/06, p. 2368, Dec 2002
Subject: Social Work (0452); Education, Adult and Continuing (0516)

Abstract: This thesis presents a research study that evaluates an educational program designed to increase the cultural competence of practicing social workers. Although there are many training programs designed to equip professionals in this area, there are few studies that can support evidence-based choices of educational strategies and content. Forty-eight social workers employed in an addiction and mental health care treatment setting participated in a quasi-experimental mixed-method research study evaluating the program. The development of cultural competence was measured by scores on a scale (the Multicultural Counseling Inventory) and ratings of performance on a vignette task (the Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability task). Written feedback and follow-up interviews were also used to evaluate the program’s effectiveness.

Quantitative analyses revealed significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups in performance on both the Multicultural Counseling Inventory and the Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability Task. There were differences in the area of developed “awareness,” as measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (Wilks’ = .821, F(1,40) = 9.740, partial eta-squared = .179). Ratings of performance on the Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability Task indicated that participants in the educational intervention experienced superior gains in their ability to integrate cultural considerations into responses to a case vignette. Qualitative follow-up data revealed that individuals who participated in the intervention were able to identify ways in which it contributed to shifts toward more culturally competent practice after the program and up to eight weeks later. The data suggested that ideas about cultural competence in social work should be developed to include a broadened understanding of awareness and to incorporate practice at organizational and community levels. Learning for cultural competence was shown to be highly affected by the contributions that learner group composition and facilitator style made to the creation of a safe environment. Implications for social work research, education and practice are discussed. Further research is recommended to develop social work relevant definitions of cultural competence and to broaden the range of empirical evidence available to guide its development.


Title: Multicultural counseling competence as a function of multicultural counseling training in doctoral counseling psychology programs
Pub No: 3061750
Author: Beck, Sonia Campos
Degree: PhD
School: Tennessee State University
Date: 2001
Pages: 80
Adviser: Olivas, Steven
ISBN: 0-493-77490-4
Source: DAI-B 63/08, p. 3902, Feb 2003
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: The present study investigates the level of self-reported multicultural counseling competence among pre-internship level doctoral counseling psychology students as a function of level of multicultural counseling training in their respective APA accredited academic programs. A random sample of 400 students from across the nation was asked to participate in the study. Ninety two participants completed a demographic sheet, the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (Sodowsky et al., 1994), and the Multicultural Counseling Competency Checklist (Ponterotto et al., 1995). The results obtained by the two instruments were analyzed to determine whether there is a correlation between level of self-reported multicultural counseling competence and level of multicultural counseling training provided by academic programs. In addition, the effect of level of training on both overall competence as well as the separate domains of competence was examined. It was hypothesized that there is a strong positive correlation between training and competence, that higher levels of training have a significant effect on overall competence, and that level of training affects separate domains of competence differently. Contrary to what was expected, results showed no significant correlation or effects. These results are discussed along with possible reasons for the unexpected findings.


Title: Therapist cultural sensitivity and premature termination rates with ethnic minority adolescents
Pub No: 3029944
Author: Christensen, Colin Herbert
Degree: PhD
School: The University of Akron
Date: 2001
Pages: 153
Adviser: Subich, Linda
ISBN: 0-493-42387-7
Source: DAI-B 62/10, p. 4776, Apr 2002
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631)

Abstract: The current study investigated the extent to which cultural sensitivity as measured by the Cultural Sensitivity Self-Report (CSSR) and multicultural competency as measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) were related to the premature termination rates of 104 client-therapist dyads. The dyads included 32 therapists and 104 ethnic minority adolescent clients (10 & 18 years of age) from four counseling agencies primarily located in Northeast Ohio. Therapists completed the CSSR, MCI, Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, to assess the extent to which respondents had self-report biases), and a therapist demographic questionnaire. Client data were obtained archivally from agency records. Data gathered about clients included demographic information, number of sessions attended, and reason for therapy termination.

Logistic regression analyses were run to determine the extent to which therapists’ CSSR and MCI scores predicted the premature termination status of ethnic minority adolescent clients over and above the variables of therapist ethnicity and therapist years of experience. The results did not support the hypotheses that therapists’ CSSR and MCI scores were related to premature termination rates.

Although the data had a number of confounds and were difficult to interpret, a number of exploratory findings warrant further research. It appeared that the therapist’s agency, area of specialty, and youth age were all related to attrition rates of ethnic minority adolescents. Specifically, therapists at one agency appeared to have better results than did therapists at other agencies, counselors tended to have better engagement results than did psychologists, and older adolescents tended to unilaterally terminate at a higher rate than did younger clients. A significant weakness of the current study is that the CSSR was found to have serious conceptual and psychometric difficulties. Thus, it was not possible to draw firm conclusions about the role cultural sensitivity may play as a predictor in premature termination status. The exploratory analyses of other variables, however, suggest that treatment approach and youth age may be fruitful avenues for further research.


Title: An examination of racial identity and attitudes, perceived cultural competence, and level of academic training of European-American graduate students with culturally diverse clients
Pub No: 3004489
Author: Crawford, Justine Kyckelhahn
Degree: PsyD
School: George Fox University
Date: 2001
Pages: 67
Adviser: Koch, Chris
ISBN: 0-493-13313-5
Source: DAI-B 62/02, p. 1072, Aug 2001
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519)

Abstract: This study investigated the relationships between European-American graduate student’s racial identity and attitudes, multicultural counseling competencies, and various educational and training variables. European-American Counseling graduate students (n= 25) each completed measures of White Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (WRAIS), self-reported Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), and a personal data sheet with a variety of variables concerning multicultural course work, training, and exposure to diverse students, professors and clients. Students’ racial identity development did not correlate with multicultural counseling competencies, as had been previously found by Ottavi, Pope-Davis, and Dings (1994). Certain scales of the MCI did correlate with various educational and training variables, such as number of multicultural clients, number of supervision hours spent on multicultural issues, academic level in a program, and course work that included at least 20% time on multicultural issues. Overall, results showed limited value of racial identity development in predicting self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. Results did indicate that graduate programs and practica experience relate to the level of competence in European-American graduate students working with multicultural clients.


Title: A nationwide assessment of multicultural counseling competencies of rehabilitation practitioners in the private sector
Pub No: 3022513
Author: Kirksey Augustin, Kellie Nicole
Degree: PhD
School: The Ohio State University
Date: 2001
Pages: 168
Adviser: Growick, Bruce
ISBN: 0-493-34093-9
Source: DAI-A 62/08, p. 2691, Feb 2002
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282); Health Sciences, Rehabilitation and Therapy (0382)

Abstract: With the increasing diversity of the United States, rehabilitation service providers must be prepared to work with a more multicultural client base. The shift in cultural and ethnic composition of the United States is visible throughout society. Thus, rehabilitation service providers must be responsive to the socio-cultural implications of planning treatment for an increasingly diverse workforce.

This study assessed the self-perceived multicultural competencies of private-sector rehabilitation service professionals nationwide. Possessing the skills, knowledge, awareness and relationship building abilities to work effectively outside a counselor’s own cultural group indicates multicultural counseling competence. The target population was the membership of the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector. From a population of 2800, 500 subjects were randomly selected, of whom 211 returned survey packets, for a response rate of 42.2%. The respondents’ level of multicultural competence was assessed using the Multicultural Counseling Inventory, which comprises four subscales: skills, knowledge, awareness, and relationship (counseling). Respondents were also asked to complete a demographic form and the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale. The multicultural counseling competence of rehabilitation service professionals in the private sector was the study’s dependent variable. The independent variables included gender, race, age, educational level, number of courses taken in multicultural counseling, number of continuing education courses in multiculturalism or diversity, length of experience as a rehabilitation service professional, geographic location of current practice, and perceived adequacy of academic preparation to work with persons from another cultural group upon completion of a degree program.

The data was analyzed using a series of one-way analysis of variance and univariate multiple regressions. Results revealed that training had a positive effect on the multicultural competencies of skills, awareness and knowledge. The counseling relationship was less affected by training. The majority of rehabilitation service professionals surveyed stated that they were not adequately trained to work with a multicultural population and would be interested in further multicultural training.


Title: Ego development, personal and educational experience, and multicultural counseling competence among counseling students
Pub No: 3025365
Author: Panici, Ramona Marie
Degree: PhD
School: University of Georgia
Date: 2001
Pages: 154
Adviser: Hayes, Richard L.
ISBN: 0-493-37369-1
Source: DAI-A 62/09, p. 2981, Mar 2002
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Psychology, Developmental (0620); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate counselors in training and the relationships between their personal and educational experience, ego development level, and multicultural counseling competence. The research offered potential benefits for theory development and practice in counselor training and multicultural counseling. It was hypothesized that there would be statistically significant correlations between student experience, training, ego development, and multicultural counseling competence, and that ego development would interact with experience factors to result in counselors who were more multiculturally competent. Developmental theorists have provided evidence that individuals at higher stages of ego development are capable of processing and reacting to their experiences more effectively than do individuals at lower levels (Borders, 1998). As such, the question about whether students at higher stages of ego development would be more multiculturally competent was consistent with these findings. One hundred and ten students were selected from graduate programs in counseling and related areas at The University of Georgia and asked to fill out the Multicultural Counseling Inventory, The Washington University Sentence Completion Test, and an Experience Questionnaire. Fifty seven responses were received, 48 of which were useable for the study. Significant correlations were found supporting previous research in multicultural counseling theory. Positive relationships were detected between levels of training experience and all factors associated with multicultural counseling competence. Additionally, student’s awareness of multicultural issues was related to personal experience with diverse populations. Significant correlations were found between additional predictor variables, such as age, type of program, type of training, language fluency, and multicultural counseling competence. Though statistical significance was not attained at the .05 level, a correlational trend was observed between ego development levels and multicultural knowledge. Aside from this finding, the hypothesis that ego development and experience would interact to produce higher scores on the Multicultural Counseling Inventory was not supported. Several suppositions were made as to the reason for this rejection. Additionally, implications of the results were offered, questions raised through results of the study were posed, and recommendations were made for further research. The suggestion was made that this study would be improved through stratification of a larger overall sample.


Title: Multicultural counseling competencies of clinical and counseling psychology graduate students and interns
Pub No: 9998083
Author: Hung, Melissa Kim
Degree: PhD
School: University of Kansas
Date: 2000
Pages: 76
Adviser: Karpowitz, Dennis H.
ISBN: 0-493-06245-9
Source: DAI-B 61/12, p. 6708, Jun 2001
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the multicultural counseling competencies (MCC) of clinical and counseling psychology graduate students and psychology interns in relation to their multicultural training. A national sample of 280 students and interns participated. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994). Results showed significant differences between interns and clinical students, with interns reporting higher MCC than clinical students. Findings also revealed significant differences in MCC by ethnicity, with minorities reporting higher MCC than Caucasians. Results also showed significant differences in the MCC of interns by type of internship site and of all participants by geographical location of graduate program or internship site. Different variables were predictive of MCC for the three groups. Findings are discussed in relation to training in psychology programs.


Title: The effectiveness of case-based instruction vs. the lecture-discussion method in multicultural social work
Pub No: NQ50109
Author: Barise, Abdullahi
Degree: PhD
School: McGill University (Canada)
Date: 1999
Pages: 186
Adviser: Amundsen, Cheryl
ISBN: 0-612-50109-4
Source: DAI-A 61/06, p. 2181, Dec 2000
Subject: Education, Educational Psychology (0525); Education, Higher (0745); Social Work (0452); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of case-based instruction and lecture-discussions in enhancing students’ multicultural social work competence and their reflective self-regulation to learn multicultural social work. The sample consisted of undergraduate social work students enrolled in a multicultural social work practice course which was composed of two classes, the Special Bachelor of Social Work (SBSW) and the Regular Bachelor of Social Work (RBSW). The students in the SBSW had higher levels of education, mean age, and mean GPA than the students in the RBSW class. Each of these classes was divided into two sections. Participants were randomly assigned to these two sections in which case-based instruction in a section (n = 20 for the SBSW class; n = 19 for the RBSW class), and lecture-discussions in the other section (n = 20 for the SBSW class; n = 19 for the RBSW class) were used to teach the same course content. To control for instructor effects, the researcher and another instructor both taught the two sections of each class, one with case-based instruction and the other with lecture and discussions. The randomized pretest posttest control group design was used in this study. Case analyses scored through Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised and student self-reports using the Multicultural Counseling Inventory were used to measure multicultural social work competence. To measure levels of students’ self-regulated learning in relation to the course, students were administered the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. The same data were collected both at the beginning of the study and at the end of the study. The length of the study was 8 weeks. Two procedures were followed to ensure treatment fidelity: two observers recorded the extent to which class plans reflecting the content and methods of instruction were implemented and students completed questionnaires evaluating the extent to which each method of instruction was implemented. Results indicated significantly higher overall multicultural competence, awareness, skill, and relationship for the case-based sections in both classes. There were significantly higher levels of multicultural knowledge and learning motivation for the case section in the SBSW, but not in the RBSW class. No significant interaction was found between self-regulated learning and method of instruction. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of increase in skills in self-regulation.


Title: Multicultural counseling competencies and racial identity development of practicing vocational rehabilitation counselors
Pub No: 9939757
Author: Cumming-McCann, Allison A.
Degree: PhD
School: University of Northern Colorado
Date: 1999
Pages: 190
Adviser: Ososkie, Joseph
ISBN: 0-599-41092-2
Source: DAI-A 60/07, p. 2383, Jan 2000
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631); Education, Vocational (0747)

Abstract: Self reported multicultural counseling competencies and White racial attitudes of 116 practicing vocational rehabilitation counselors were assessed. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between White racial attitude development as measured by the Oklahoma Racial Attitude Scale (ORAS-P) and Multicultural counseling competencies measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI). Counselor characteristics such as experience and training were also examined in relation to the both multicultural competence and racial attitude development. The number of multicultural experiences demonstrated moderate to high correlations with multicultural competencies. Counselors theoretical approach was also found to relate significantly to counselor’s self reported competencies. No other counselor characteristics were found to relate to MCI scores in this study. These results indicate that counselor’s White Racial attitudes and Multicultural counseling competence will benefit from the inclusion of multicultural experiences throughout counselor training programs. White racial attitudes as measured by the ORAS-P were found to relate significantly to MCI scores. Regression analysis indicated that Racial Attitudes explained variance in multicultural competencies beyond that accounted for by demographic and educational variables. Counselors identifying with Integrative attitudes consistently rated themselves as multiculturally competent. Significant negative relationships were found between three of the Racial attitude statuses and MCI relationship subscale. These results suggest that Racial Attitude development should be considered as an integral aspect of rehabilitation counselor education programs and continuing education opportunities for practicing rehabilitation counselors.


Title: The efficacy of a self-examination study of racial/ethnic heritage concerning black/white romantic unions in improving multicultural counseling competency
Pub No: 9952588
Author: Goodwin, Ruthie Bea
Degree: PhD
School: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary
Date: 1999
Pages: 180
Adviser: Floyd, Scott
ISBN: 0-599-56807-0
Source: DAI-B 60/11, p. 5772, May 2000
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Social Work (0452); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631)

Abstract: Problem. The problem of this study was to determine the differences in Multicultural Counseling Competency scores as measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) of Texas Licensed Professional Counselors who completed a self-examination study of racial/ethnic heritage concerning black/white romantic unions, and those who did not.

Procedures. A two-group post test only experimental design was used with 399 volunteers licensed as Professional Counselors in Texas. Group one completed a Self-Examination Study of Racial/Ethnic Heritage Concerning Black/White Romantic Unions and then completed the Multicultural Counseling Inventory. Group two completed only the Multicultural Counseling Inventory. A t-test for individual variables determined if there was a significant difference between the two groups. The t-test was also used to compare the groups’ answers to questions on the Multicultural Counseling Inventory and its subscales.

Findings and conclusion. The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups, with the treatment group scoring significantly higher than the control group. The treatment group also scored significantly higher on three of the four subscales of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory. Texas Licensed Professional Counselor’s multicultural counseling competency was positively affected by participation in the self-examination of racial/ethnic heritage concerning black/white romantic unions.


Title: The impact of cross-cultural practice on multicultural competence among occupational therapists
Pub No: 1393979
Author: Kim, Benita M.
Degree: MS
School: Rush University, College of Nursing
Date: 1999
Pages: 71
Adviser: Bachelder, Judy
ISBN: 0-599-25773-3
Source: MAI 37/05, p. 1445, Oct 1999
Subject: Health Sciences, Occupational Health and Safety (0354); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282); Sociology, General (0626)

Abstract: The profession of occupational therapy has identified the need to increase multicultural competency among occupational therapists (OT) especially with the constant increase of an ethnically diverse population in the United States. One method of attaining this goal may be sending OTs to practice outside the U.S. Therefore, this study explored the impact of cross-cultural practice as well as demographic factors on multicultural competence. Questionnaires which included Multicultural Counseling Inventory (Sodowsky, Taffe, & Gutkin, 1991) and demographic information were mailed out to two groups of OTs nationwide: Group A–100 OTs who have only practiced in the U.S. and Group B–100 OTs who have practiced outside the U.S. By comparing the two groups, statistical analysis revealed cross-cultural practice significantly increased multicultural competence. Furthermore, multicultural training, percentage of minorities worked with and gender were statistically significant and positively correlated with certain areas (Awareness, Skill, Knowledge and Relationship) of multicultural competence.


Title: The relationship between multicultural counseling competencies and attitudes toward African Americans among white female graduate students
Pub No: 9951242
Author: Robinson, Dianne T.
Degree: PhD
School: Western Michigan University
Date: 1999
Pages: 123
Adviser: Morris, Joseph R.
ISBN: 0-599-55231-X
Source: DAI-A 60/11, p. 3919, May 2000
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631); Education, Higher (0745); Black Studies (0325)

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between multicultural counseling competencies and attitudes toward African Americans among White female graduate students in counseling psychology. Participants were 67 White female students enrolled in either the master’s or doctoral level counseling psychology programs in a large Midwestern university. Subjects were administered four instruments. Participants’ self-perceived competencies in multicultural counseling were measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI, Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) and racial attitudes were measured by the Attitudes Toward Blacks Scale (ATB, Brigham, 1993). Demographic information as well as subjects’ level of participation in several activities linked to the development of multicultural counseling competencies were evaluated by the Personal Information Questionnaire. A measure of social desirability was included to control for the tendency to respond to self- report measures in socially acceptable ways.

Descriptive statistics involving respondent characteristics, level of participation in activities related to multicultural competence, and scores on the independent and dependent measures were presented. Completion of a multicultural counseling course and participation in at least one training experience with a racial/ethnic minority faculty member were significantly related to favorable attitudes toward African Americans. Preliminary analyses for social desirability revealed significant results for the MCI relationship subscale and the MCI full scale which measures general multicultural counseling competence irrespective of unique subscales. Significant results were also found between the MCI full scale and attitudes toward African Americans. Due to the significant relationship found between the MCI full scale and social desirability, it is possible that the latter finding may have been influenced by social desirability in this particular sample.


Title: The impact of multicultural clinical experience, training, and self-reported competence on diagnostic bias
Pub No: 9929392
Author: Scholefield, Robin Marie
Degree: PhD
School: California School of Professional Psychology – Los Angeles
Date: 1999
Pages: 250
Adviser: Harrell, Shelly P.
ISBN: 0-599-29277-6
Source: DAI-B 60/05, p. 2366, Nov 1999
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631); Black Studies (0325)

Abstract: Demographic changes in the United States point to the need for multiculturally competent therapists to serve an increasingly diverse population. Multicultural competence includes the ability to make accurate diagnoses. The diagnostic bias literature has typically examined client variables, while multicultural competence research has focused on therapist characteristics. This study consisted of a random sample of 252 psychologists throughout the United States selected from among licensed, active practitioners who are members of the American Psychological Association. Data was collected via the clinical analogue method. Potential participants were randomly assigned to a vignette of a Black or White male with bipolar disorder. Therapists were asked to complete a multiaxial diagnosis of a case vignette, a sociodemographic and professional history questionnaire, and the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin & Wise, 1994). This study combined the multicultural competence and diagnostic bias literatures by examining the effect of multicultural clinical experience and training on a White clinician’s ability to accurately diagnose an African American client. This research also examined the criterion validity of a measure of multicultural competence by examining its relationship with a behavioral measure (i.e., cross-cultural diagnosis). It was hypothesized that White therapists would more frequently misdiagnose the Black client than the White client on Axis I. Results were not significant. It was expected that White therapists with more multicultural clinical experience, training and competence would more accurately diagnose the Black client than those with less multicultural competence. There were no significant findings. An abbreviated range of responses among multicultural training, experience, and skills and a relatively low response rate may have contributed to these findings. There was a significant departure (from the 50%/50% expected) in the number of surveys returned; more surveys with the White client were returned than with Black client. Results suggest that the MCI may not have effectively assessed therapists with low multicultural competence. There were no significant differences in multicultural skills between participants who had training in the diagnosis of people of color and those who did not. Younger therapists were more likely to correctly diagnose the Black client and had more multicultural training than older therapists.


Title: Construct validation of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory: The contribution of client satisfaction
Pub No: 9901840
Author: Gillispie, Joanie Farley
Degree: PhD
School: The Fielding Institute
Date: 1998
Pages: 115
Adviser: Nims, Jerry
ISBN: 0-591-98835-6
Source: DAI-B 59/08, p. 4463, Feb 1999
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519)

Abstract: The purpose of this project was to investigate the validity of a multicultural counseling competency self-report instrument (the Multicultural Counseling Inventory) by correlating counselor self-report of multicultural counseling competencies (MCC) to client satisfaction. The specific goal of this research was to further understand counselor effectiveness when counseling clients who are culturally different from themselves. An inclusive framework of culture was used to expand the concept of cultural differences from a racial/ethnic framework to one that acknowledged other characteristics of group affiliation and/or individual identity (e.g., age, gender, disability, language, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status).

This study asked whether or not multicultural counseling competencies are necessary when working with culturally diverse clients. Counselors were asked to rate their MCC and those scores were compared to their clients’ overall satisfaction. No data previously existed investigating the accuracy of counselor self-reported MCC. The client population in this study was limited to persons who are HIV positive due to the proportion of sero-positive individuals who are culturally different from their mental health providers and the impetus that this disease provides for more adequately serving the mental health needs of persons living with this disease.

The results of this research showed few correlations between counselor MCC and client satisfaction. Counselor MCI scores were not found to be related to client satisfaction levels. Only correlations for MCI subscale Awareness and average client satisfaction scores revealed significant differences for counselor race/ethnicity but not for other counselor descriptive variables (e.g. degree, gender, sexual orientation). Several relationships between MCI total and subscale scores and client satisfaction levels were found when counselor/client dyads were categorized by race/ethnicity. Of the other counselor variables (age, caseload contact with culturally different clients, degree, MCC training) only older counselors’ scores on the Knowledge subscale were significant, in addition, the clients’ perception of how much their counselor understood them was found to significantly predict their satisfaction levels.


Title: The relationships between counselor White racial identity attitudes, methods of clinical training, and self-perceptions of multicultural counseling competencies
Pub No: 9833728
Author: Kelly, John A.
Degree: EdD
School: Uinversity of Cincinnati
Date: 1998
Pages: 89
Adviser: Yager, Geoffrey
ISBN: 0-591-86922-5
Source: DAI-A 59/05, p. 1472, Nov 1998
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282); Psychology, Social (0451)

Abstract: White counseling graduate students (N = 64) completed a measure of White racial identity development, the White Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (WRIAS), which was developed by Helms. The participants also completed the Multicultural Counseling Inventory. The participants completed a personal data sheet which included gender, age, race, estimated income per year, year in program, and degree objective. The personal data sheet also included total number of clinical experiences and educational variables.

Students’ White racial identity development, educational level, and specific clinical experiential variables demonstrated moderate correlations with specific multicultural competencies, as was true in a previous Ottavi, Pope-Davis, and Dings study (1994). WRIAS subscales accounted for a significant amount of variability in the MCI Knowledge subscale. In particular, the WRIAS subscales Disintegration and Pseudo-Independence were significantly correlated with the MCI Knowledge subscale. Finally, the WRIAS Contact subscale was significantly related to both the MCI Awareness and Relationship subscales. There were no significant relationships between any subscales of the MCI and age, gender, or estimated annual income. As a package, the educational/clinical variables did not significantly increase the prediction of MCI subscale scores.


Title: The effects of impairment on the acquisition of basic counseling competencies
Pub No: 9841655
Author: Leech, Linda Louise
Degree: PhD
School: Ohio University
Date: 1998
Pages: 187
Adviser: Hazler, Richard J.
ISBN: 0-591-95822-8
Source: DAI-A 59/07, p. 2362, Jan 1999
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Psychology, Industrial (0624)

Abstract: Interest in safeguarding the counseling profession and the clients it serves from incompetent or irresponsible practitioners has increased. Increased attention is being given to the identification of those individuals who are likely to engage in unethical or harmful practices before serious breaches of legal or ethical standards have been violated. However little substantive research exists which identifies those characteristics which are likely to lead to impaired ability to provide effective counseling services.

This exploratory study examined the effects of pre-existing levels of impairment of beginning master’s level counseling students on levels of cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, and multicultural counseling competency after a basic counseling skills course controlling for the effects of previous counseling-related coursework, previous counseling-related work experience, and pre-course levels of empathy and multicultural counseling competency. The sample consisted of 103 master’s level students from six CACREP-accredited universities in Ohio. Data was analyzed using three multiple regression analyses.

Preliminary explorations show no significant differences in competency levels of students before and after the basic counseling skills course. Levels of impairment measured by nine subscales on the Derogatis Symptom Checklist-90-Revised show no significant increases in distress levels of students before and after the course. Scores on the Hogan Empathy Scale, Questionnaire Measure of Emotion Empathy, and the Multicultural Counseling Inventory are somewhat lower for individuals with higher levels of impairment although these individuals account for only 16% of the sample. Levels of impairment are not shown to be significant predictors of level of cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, or multicultural counseling competency when the effects of previous counseling-related coursework, work experience, and pre-existing
levels of counseling competence are removed.


Title: Correlates of effectiveness for white psychotherapists working with African-American clients: Multicultural competence, clinical experience, racial consciousness, multicultural training, and social experience
Pub No: 9807477
Author: Menapace, Bruce Robert
Degree: PhD
School: California School of Professional Psychology – Berkeley/Alameda
Date: 1998
Pages: 129
Adviser: Jenkins-Monroe, Valata
ISBN: 0-591-57772-0
Source: DAI-B 58/09, p. 5130, Mar 1998
Subject: Psychology, Clinical (0622); Black Studies (0325); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631); Psychology, Social (0451)

Abstract: This study examined the correlates of effective treatment of Black clients by White psychotherapists. It was expected that White therapists’ effective treatment of their Black clients would be associated with the therapists’ multicultural competence, multicultural training, clinical and social experience with Blacks, and level of racial consciousness. It was also anticipated that the therapists’ multicultural training and clinical and social experience with Blacks would be correlated with multicultural competence.

Participants completing a 12-page survey were 58 White graduate psychology students and 216 White psychologists who had treated at least one Black client in the year prior to June, 1996. The students were sampled from graduate psychology programs at ten California universities and professional schools. Survey booklets were made available to the graduate students in a convenient location at their school or placed directly in their mailboxes. The psychologists were sampled through a mailing list from the American Psychological Association’s Research Office. The list was created as a computer-generated random sample of APA members. Each member had self-identified as being a licensed practicing psychologist, as being White, and as having a California address.

Effective treatment was operationalized by measuring the individual White therapists’ client completion rates for their Black psychotherapy clients. Participants also completed the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (to measure competency in: (a) multicultural counseling skills, (b) multicultural awareness, (c) multicultural counseling relationship, and (d) multicultural counseling knowledge), the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale-Preliminary (to assess White racial consciousness), and a general questionnaire (to assess multicultural training, clinical and social experience with Blacks, and demographics).

Multiple regression analysis showed the best predictors of effective treatment of Black clients by White psychotherapists to be clinical experience with African American clients and multicultural competence in counseling relationship and counseling skills. Bivariate results were mixed for multicultural competence of awareness and counseling knowledge; for students they were significantly associated with effective treatment, but not so for psychologists. Integrative White racial consciousness had a significant bivariate association with effective treatment, but was not a unique predictor in multiple regression. Social experience with African Americans and different types of multicultural training overall did not significantly influence effectiveness of treatment.


Title: A study of the relationship between white racial consciousness and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies in faculty at CACREP-accredited programs
Pub No: 9732665
Author: Johnson, Amy Wiegand
Degree: PhD
School: Ohio University
Date: 1997
Pages: 153
Adviser: Stone, David A.
ISBN: 0-591-42205-0
Source: DAI-A 58/05, p. 1602, Nov 1997
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: This study examines the relationship between White racial consciousness and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies in faculty at CACREP-accredited programs. Other demographic variables are examined as possible predictors of self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. These variables are–gender, the percentage of White American faculty in the department, the number of multicultural counseling courses taken, the number of multicultural counseling workshops taken, number of hours counseling racial minority clients, and the number of hours of received multicultural supervision.

Participants were derived from a national randomized sample of White American faculty at CACREP-accredited programs who responded to a mailed survey (n = 109). The survey consisted of three instruments: the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale-Preliminary Form (ORAS-P), the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale-Short Form C (M-C SDS), and a demographic sheet. The 40-item MCI measured self-reported multicultural counseling competencies in 4 areas: awareness, knowledge, relationship, and skills. The 50-item ORAS-P assessed 7 types of attitudes representative of White racial consciousness. The 13-item M-C SDS (Form C) assessed social desirability. The main result of the multivariate regression analysis is that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between White racial awareness and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies among faculty at CACREP-accredited programs. Many of the demographic variables are not significant predictors of multicultural counseling competencies, such as–gender, the percentage of White American faculty in the department, the number of multicultural counseling workshops taken, and the number of hours of received multicultural supervision.

However, the results of the multiple regression analyses indicate that the amount of experience in counseling racial minority clients is a significant predictor of multicultural counseling competencies in the areas of awareness and relationship. The number of multicultural counseling courses taken is a significant predictor of multicultural knowledge.

Correlational analyses suggest that there is a statistically significant negative relationship between age and multicultural knowledge. Another result is that the more counseling experience faculty had, the greater is the multicultural relationship competence. Also, there is a statistically significant positive relationship between social desirability and multicultural relationship and multicultural skills. Implications and recommendations for future research are given.


Title: Relationship between white racial identity attitudes and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies for counselor education students
Pub No: 9732660
Author: McKellop, Thomas James
Degree: PhD
School: Ohio University
Date: 1997
Pages: 150
Adviser: Stone, David A.
ISBN: 0-591-42200-X
Source: DAI-A 58/05, p. 1603, Nov 1997
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies (0631)

Abstract: Multicultural education is an important area of study for counselor education students. Students will need to become knowledgeable in this area due to the current demographic trends. Currently there is a disproportionate number of White therapists that are providing services to minorities, and this is likely to increase if current demographic trends continue.

Racial identity theories were developed first for African Americans to help describe the developmental process of identifying oneself as a member of one’s race. More recently racial identity theories have included other races including Whites. There is a considerable paucity of research and theoretical literature concerning White racial identity development. Racial identity has historically been a topic of research, primarily because it is considered important in the psychological functioning for people of color. Few studies have addressed the potential influence of racial identity development on multicultural counseling competencies and also measure skills utilizing a related self-reported multicultural counseling competence instrument.

The research assesses if a multicultural competency training models hypothesis that counselor education students’ White racial identity development are significantly correlated to self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. CACREP counselor education students (N = 156) completed measures of racial identity development (The White Racial Identity Attitude Scale) and multicultural counseling skills (The Multicultural Counseling Inventory). Demographic information gathered includes gender, age, past and present socioeconomic status, and percentage of the counselor education students’ high school who were her or his race.

The participants in this study are masters and doctoral level counselor education students at Ohio University, Ohio University at Chillicothe, Kent State University, The University of Akron, University of Cincinnati, University of Toledo, and Youngstown State University. These institutions were selected because they all have CACREP counselor education programs. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that White racial identity attitudes explain variability in multicultural counseling competencies beyond that accounted for by demographic variables.


Title: Relationships among educational and demographic variables, rated counselor effectiveness, and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies
Pub No: 9807323
Author: Moss, Chamain Monique
Degree: PhD
School: State University of New York at Buffalo
Date: 1997
Pages: 123
Adviser: Cramer, Stanley H.
ISBN: 0-591-57614-7
Source: DAI-A 58/08, p. 3022, Feb 1998
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Psychology, Clinical (0622); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to expand what is known about the relationship among educational and demographic variables, counselor effectiveness, and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. The educational variables under study were degree program, year in program, number of clinical practicum placements, number of multicultural counseling courses taken, number of hours of multicultural workshop/seminar training, number of supervised multicultural counseling experiences, and number of counseling experiences with people of color. Demographic variables included gender, ethnicity, highest degree held, years since degree, and degree currently pursued. Fifty-five masters-level students in counseling as well as fifteen supervisors, who were either doctoral level students or faculty at the State University of New York at Buffalo, Canisius College, and Pennsylvania State University, participated in this study.

Each supervisor completed a Counselor Evaluation Rating Scale (CERS) developed by Myrick and Kelly (1971). The CERS provided a measure of counseling and supervision performance. Masters-level students completed a demographic questionnaire developed for this study and the multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) developed by Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, and Wise (1994). The demographic questionnaire provided information on the educational and demographic variables. The MCI provided a measure of self-reported multicultural counseling competency in four areas: multicultural counseling knowledge, multicultural counseling awareness, multicultural counseling skill, and multicultural counseling relationship.

The results of this study indicated that significant relationships exist between self-reported multicultural counseling competence and educational variables including: year in degree program, number of multicultural counseling courses taken, number of workshops/seminars attended, whether multicultural issues were addressed in supervision, number of multicultural issues addressed in supervision, and number of counseling experiences with people of color. There was no relationship between counseling and supervision performance and multicultural counseling competence. Results are discussed in terms of the limitations of this study and the implications for future research.


Title: The relationship among school counselor’s self-perceptions of multicultural counseling competencies and ethnic identity development
Pub No:9736899
Author: Robinson, Gena Beth
Degree: EdD
School: Texas Tech University
Date: 1997
Pages: 144
Adviser: Bradley, Loretta J.
ISBN: 0-591-46908-1
Source: DAI-A 58/06, p. 2089, Dec 1997
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: As the demographics of the United States change, school counselors increasingly have ethnically diverse caseloads and are challenged to develop multicultural counseling competencies. Theorists have identified the following components of multicultural counseling competency: awareness, knowledge, relationship, and skills. Although theorists have hypothesized about the importance of ethnic identity development in the development of multicultural counseling competencies, studies have not specifically examined ethnic identity development and multicultural counseling competencies.

The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between ethnics identity development and self-perceptions of multicultural counseling competencies among school counselors. A correlational design with multiple predictor variables (ethnic identity development, educational variables, clinical variables, and demographic variables) and multiple criterion variables (overall MCI score and MCI subscale scores) was utilized. Self-perceptions of multicultural counseling competencies were assessed using the Multicultural Counseling Inventory, and ethnic identity development was assessed by the multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Data were collected from 106 public school counselors in South Plains region of Texas during the spring semester of 1997. A multiple regression indicted counselors’ attitudes toward other ethnic groups, multicultural workshops, training, and supervision were significant predictors for the overall MCI score. Counselors’ attitudes toward other ethnic groups, multicultural workshops and training were significant predictors for MCI Awareness Subscales cores. Multicultural training, counselors’ attitudes toward other ethnic groups, and multicultural workshops were significant predictors for MCI Knowledge Subscale scores.

Multicultural workshops, counselors’ attitudes toward other ethnic groups, multicultural supervision, an age were significant predictors for MCI RElationship subscale scores. Multicultural workshops and counselors’ attitudes toward other ethnic groups were significant predictors for MCI Skills Subscale scores. Research also indicated counselors’ perceptions of their own multicultural counseling competencies were relatively low as indicated by the following mean subscales scores: Awareness, 2.65; Knowledge, 3.04; Relationship, 3.19; Skills, 3.29.

The results of this study indicated counselors’ attitudes toward other ethnic groups, multicultural supervision, course work and workshops are positively correlated with counselors’ self-perceptions of multicultural counseling competencies. However, the relatively low score on the Awareness Subscale suggested that multicultural training may have focused on knowledge and skills, while ignoring awareness of culture.


Title: Effects of the intercultural awareness development courses on first year students’ multicultural competency
Pub No: 9817071
Author: Salvador, Caroline M.
Degree: PsyD
School: California School of Professional Psychology – Berkeley/Alameda
Date: 1997
Pages: 102
Adviser: Sue, Derald Wing
ISBN: 0-591-68412-8
Source: DAI-B 58/11, p. 5874, May 1998
Subject: Health Sciences, Education (0350); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282); Psychology, Cognitive (0633)

Abstract: The growth of ethnic minority populations in the United States has meant that more culturally different individuals are seeking mental health treatment. Many training programs have addressed this issue by including multicultural training into the curriculum. This study is a response to the invitation posed by multicultural theorists to evaluate program effectiveness in preparing multiculturally competent clinicians.

The increase in multicultural competency of first-year doctoral students in the 1996-97 academic year at CSPP-Alameda was evaluated during their enrollment in the required year-long multicultural course titled Intercultural Awareness Development. It was hypothesized that the students would experience an increase in their multicultural competency in the areas of awareness, skills, counseling relationship, and knowledge.

First-year students enrolled in the IAD courses were assessed using the 40-item Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI). Significant subject attrition occurred during the three test administrations. Approximately 45 student inventories were eligible for statistical analysis comparing multicultural competency change between the first pretest with the first posttest, but only about 25 student inventories were eligible for comparison between the first posttest and the last posttest. In all analyses, a repeated measures multivariate test, followed by repeated measures dependent t-tests, were performed on the four MCI subscale scores, and a significant level of.05 was used. A mean increase in multicultural counseling knowledge was the only significant change found across the pretest and posttest comparisons. Results could indicate the effectiveness of the course in increasing students’ knowledge but not their awareness, skills and counseling relationship. The increase in knowledge could also speak to the effectiveness of the course didactic and lecture material, while the lack of change in other areas suggests the need for further development of the experiential components. Other factors that may have affected the results of the study need to be noted, including subjects’ variable level of multicultural competency prior to the course, significant subject attrition, instructor effectiveness, and differential practica requirements for Psy.D. and Ph.D. students.


Title: An analysis of multicultural training (social work students)
Pub No: 1385687
Author: Sims, Anne Maureen
Degree: MSW
School: California State University, Long Beach
Date: 1997
Pages: 59
Adviser: Brown, Lester B.
ISBN: 0-591-48364-5
Source: MAI 35/06, p. 1676, Dec 1997
Subject: Social Work (0452); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282); Education, Higher (0745)

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which multicultural training impacts racial sensitivity among California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), social work students. It also looked at program deficiencies in the area of multicultural education in the Master of Social Work program at CSULB. The study utilized an exploratory design. The research study population was comprised of 32 graduate students, 53.1% from the Department of Social Work and 45.9% from the Department of Educational Psychology. The educational psychology graduate students were utilized as a comparison group by the researcher.

To examine this relationship, the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) (Sodowsky 1990) was utilized by the researcher for data collection. A personal data form was developed by the researcher. Results of this study indicate if you have limited exposure to multicultural training going into a master’s program you can obtain the necessary multicultural skills through graduate level training.


Title: Reported experiences which influence psychologists’ degree of multicultural competency
Pub No: 9718359
Author: Gutierrez, Bibiana M.
Degree: PhD
School: Texas A&M University
Date: 1996
Pages: 180
Adviser: Davenport, Donna
ISBN: 0-591-26645-8
Source: DAI-A 58/01, p. 96, Jul 1997
Subject: Education, Guidance and Counseling (0519); Education, Bilingual and Multicultural (0282)

Abstract: The literature in the area of multicultural counseling competency has focused primarily on theoretical multicultural models and a few empirically supported training programs which utilize traditional teaching methods (i.e., readings, writing, didactic lectures, simulation experiences, etc.). There appears to be preliminary support for these multicultural training and teaching strategies in affecting competency; yet, there is also evidence that there may be other experiences outside of traditional training experiences which may influence multicultural competency.

The purpose of the proposed study was to explore and examine the wide range of reported experiences, formal training, and informal life experiences, which may influence psychologists’ degree of multicultural competency in practice with racial ethnic minority clients. Specifically, informal life experiences are those which may occur outside of the traditional training strategies.

Out of the 600 surveys mailed out to members of the American Psychological Association, 256 psychologists returned surveys which contained the Multicultural Experiences Instrument (MEI), Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), and Demographics Questions. These instruments solicited a list of reported experiences which have influenced psychologists’ work in multicultural counseling situations with racial ethnic minorities, as well as measured multicultural competency. The data generated were analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative analyses.

Findings supported the efficacy of traditional or formal training experiences currently offered in multicultural training programs. Courses, practica, and supervision were significantly correlated with multicultural competency. Continuing educational opportunities, such as presentations and workshops/conferences, were also significantly related to competencies. Direct clinical experience and seeing clients from a different cultural background from one’s own were also variables significantly related to competency and are likely important in developing and maintaining multicultural skills, knowledge, awareness, and the relationship.

This study determined that there are other types of informal life experiences which may also influence multicultural competency. Specifically, travel, a variety of work experiences with minorities (non-clinical), and actually experiencing being a minority of some type, seemed to be related to multicultural competencies.