Cultural Adjustment Difficulties Checklist

Instrument Author: Gargi R. Sodowsky and Edward Wai Ming Lai

This instrument measures acculturative stress; the relationship between acculturative stress and acculturation; the relationships between acculturative stress and immigrant socio-cultural variables; and the relationship between bicultural stress and ethnic identity. The instrument’s psychometric properties and validity have also been studied.

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Select Representative References

Inman, A.P. (2000). Development and validation of the South Asian women’s Cultural Values Conflict Scale. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 60 (7-B), 1-153.

Kuo, B.C.H. (2002). Correlates of coping of three Chinese adolescent cohorts in Toronto, Canada: Acculturation and acculturative stress. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 62 (8-B), 1-200.

Kwan, K. L. K., & Sodowsky, G. R. (1997). Internal and external ethnic identity and their correlates: A study of Chinese American immigrants. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 25, (pp. 51-67).

Maestas, M. V. (2000). Acculturation and ethnic identity measures for Latinos and Asian Americans: Analyses of methodology and psychometrics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Marczynski, C.B. (1996). The relationships among acculturation, individualism-collectivism, personality, and acculturative stress in Filipino immigrants in the United States. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58 (8-B), 1-175.

Orozco, C.D. (1995). Factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of Mexican American college students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 59 (12-A), 1-173.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., & Maestas, M. (2000). Acculturation, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress: Evidence and measurement. In R. H. Dana (Ed.), Handbook of cross cultural and multicultural personality assessment (pp. 131-172). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., & Maestas, M. V. (2002). Assessment of acculturation and cultural variables. In K. S. Kurasaki, S. Okazaki, & S. Sue (Eds.), Asian American mental health: Assessment theories and methods (pp. 77-94). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Sodowsky G. R., & Lai, E. W. M. (1997). Asian immigrant variables and structural models of cross cultural distress. In A. Booth, A. C. Crouter, & N. Landale (Eds.), Immigration and the family: Research and policy on U.S. Immigrants (pp. 211-237). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.