When most people think of Peru, the lost Incan city of Machu Picchu often comes to mind. Since its "rediscovery" by Yale archeologist Hiram Bingham in 1911, this pre-Columbian ruin has become synonymous with Peru. Few countries are similarly encapsulated within a single image to such a degree.
While the mysteriousness of ancient civilizations will forever intrigue visitors, Peru's connections to the past overshadow the significant interest generated by the country's recent economic progress. This diverse nation of 28 million people has quietly positioned itself as the hidden commercial gem of Latin America-a diverse, export-driven economy characterized by open markets and fiscal prudence.
Positive economic growth towards a stable, competitive market continues to transform Peru into a dynamic environment for U.S. investment. From the capital city of Lima to the remote Amazon jungle, this interdisciplinary course will introduce participants to the challenges and possibilities for creating new models for sustainable economies in Peru. Questions to explore include: What practices provide long-term economic empowerment and prosperity to local communities? What structures ensure benefits to the common good, be they local ownership, cultural preservation, or healthy environmental practices?
We are traveling with Crooked Trails. They will be arranging our tour, accommodations, contacts, and translators. Tammy Leland will be our guide and she has spent over 15 years working, living and learning in Peru. Crooked Trails has an impressive reputation of leading groups on social responsibility tours. The contacts they have and history with businesses in Peru will make for a very unique experience.
PO Box 94034
Seattle, WA 98124
We will be staying in Lima at a guesthouse in the heart of Miraflores near the ocean. After traveling to the Amazon, we will be staying at a 30 room ecolodge owned jointly by Rainforest Expeditions and the Local Community of Infierno. Accommodations are all 3-star in Lima. Clean, beautiful, traditional style, most have private baths. The hotel is centrally located. Accommodations in the jungle are 3 or 4 people in each room with a bed for each person covered by a mosquito net. 4-star, environmentally awarded (super eco conscious) lodge.
Peru, often referred to as the "land of the Incas", is the third largest country in South America and lies entirely within the tropics. Its northernmost point is just a few kilometers below the equator, and its southern most point is just over 18 degrees south. Geographically, Peru consists of three regions-a narrow coastal belt, followed to the east by the wide Andes mountain range, which, further east, drops to the Amazon basin.
The Andes, the second greatest mountain chain in the world after the Himalayas, rise rapidly up from the coast. It is a young range of mountains, still in the process of being uplifted as the Nazca plate slides under the South American plate. It is a rugged and difficult landscape with jagged ranges separated by extremely deep canyons and is home to half of the country population. Huascaran, at 21, 658 feet above sea level, is Peru's highest mountain and the world's highest mountain in the tropics.
Peru's climate has two seasons-wet and dry. We will be visiting Peru during their winter months, which is their dry season. Winter daytime temperatures fall between 65 and 80 degrees.
The People of Peru
Peru's population is over 26 million, almost half of which is concentrated in the narrow coastal desert. The other half of the population is found in the highlands-mostly rural Indians who practice subsistence agriculture. Most of Peru, however, lies in the Amazon basin east of the Andes and is home to only 5% of the population.
About 45% of the population is Indian (indigenas). Most are Quechua-speaking and are living in the highlands. A few speak Aymara and live on the shores of Lake Titicaca.
In Chinchero, the people are Quechua-speaking indigenous Indians that practice subsistence farming. The heritage of the Andean Indians is best seen in the many folk art forms that are still common today. The most obvious of these art forms is music, dance and crafts. Traditional Andean music is popularly called musica folklorica and contains a variety of wind instruments. There are many different forms of wind instruments, based on regional differences. The most representative are the quenas and the zamponas. Perhaps the best-known example of Andean music is "El Condor Pasa", adapted by Paul Simon.
Handicrafts made in the Andes are based on pre-Columbian necessities, such as weaving, pottery and metallurgy. Today, the woven cloth can still be seen in the traditional ponchos, belts and other clothes worn by the Andean people.
Peru's tourism industry has been growing in recent years and is now a significant part of the economy. The Andean Indians have little choice over how their region develops for tourism and are often exploited by western tour companies, local tour agencies and tourists.
If we travel seeking only to be thrilled and entertained, removed from our mundane lives for just a few weeks as if in some kind of fantasy, we will experience little and do much harm. If, on the other hand, we travel with respect and openness, desiring to learn, adapt and share at every opportunity not only will we travel lightly but we will return home so much richer, with understanding of a way of life that has many lessons for the western world.
Interacting with Peruvians and Andean Indians
It is inevitable that you'll leave some impression of your culture by visiting more remote regions of Peru. Instead of just consuming the country, Crooked Trails always likes to give something back. Tourists are in a powerful position to present a more balanced picture of life in the West and you are the ones who should actively speak out when you see something being done for the benefit of tourists, which is obviously harmful or degrading to the local environment or culture. However, unless you make an effort to communicate, all that the Indians will see is yet another rich tourist on holiday - probably an inaccurate picture of someone not particularly well off by Western standards, who has worked extremely hard to pay for a trip out to Peru and who cares for and admires the country and its people.
You will get the most out of your visit if you allow lots of time to learn and try to be constantly aware. Try to learn a few words of Quechua before you go as this will be greatly appreciated and will underline the importance of their language. When telling somebody about your home country talk about the problems as well as the good things. The Indians get a rose tinted image of the West through the media so it is important to present a balanced view of what life is really like in a developed country. Most Indians have no idea about the environmental and social costs of living in the West, and the extent of poverty, homelessness, alienation and mental illness. Things that the Indians take for granted, Westerners actively seek out and pay more for: such as local, organic food and methods of natural health care. Unlike Andean Indians, few westerners are privileged enough to own their own land and even fewer produce their own food. If you are asked how much you earn, put it in context by explaining that almost half of your income goes on paying for somewhere to live, say how much a week's supply of groceries will cost or how much it would cost to travel a short distance on a local bus.
Interaction with the Indians should be a two-way process. There is much they can teach the West about community, local self-reliance and ways of living simpler, less intrusive and more compassionate lives.
Encourage local pride
Express an interest in all things Andean and explain why you've come all this way and spent all that money to come to their country. Try to eat local food, adapt to local practices and use local services so that you can experience the culture at first hand.
Dress and behave modestly
Too many trekkers unwittingly insult the Andean Indians by the way they are dressed, although complaints are never heard because they are too polite. Clothing in the highland region is fairly sedate. Men don't wear shorts and women don't wear shorts or tank tops. When trekking, shorts are okay on the popular trek on the Inca Trail, but not in the villages. Men should always wear a shirt, going bare-chested is not appreciated. Women should wear loose trousers or skirts below the knee and tops that cover their shoulders, stomach and back.
Respect local etiquette
Peruvians have different ways of doing things and by following these simple guidelines you will avoid causing offence. The most useful word to learn is "Buenas Dias", which can be used to greet people in the morning or to say hello. As you trek through villages you will be greeted by most in this manner and it is polite to do likewise. Generally speaking, Peruvians are more formal than North Americans. Women meeting for the first time will always offer each other a kiss on the cheek, and men if they know the woman will do the same thing. This is not a come-on, so don't be offended! Indians, on the other hand, don't kiss, and their handshakes, when offered, are a light touch rather than a firm grip.
Peruvians are also used to less personal space. Conversations tend to take place face to face, streets and public transport are very crowded, and houses have little individual space.
If you ask someone if they would like to have a meal or a drink with you, you are expected to pay for it. In the villages, the people will often ask you about your lifestyle and how much money you make. They are amazed by your apparent incredible wealth. You can tone it down a bit by telling them how much things cost in your country such as housing, transportation and food. Another popular topic is family. Women can expect to be asked how many children they have. Family life is important in Peru.
When calling someone over to you, don't crook your finger up and beckon. This is considered very rude. A better way to call someone over is to give a flat, downward swipe of the open hand.
Andean Indians have used coca leaves for centuries. The most frequent use is by chewing. Although, this gives them some relief from hunger and fatigue, it is by no means equivalent to using cocaine. Cocaine is illegal, but coca use is legal and normal among Andean Indians.
When offered local alcohol, such as the local chicha (a fermented corn drink) or stronger liquor, it is customary to spill a few drops on the ground for Pachamama.
Respect religious customs
When visiting sacred sites, it is particularly important that you wear appropriate clothes, don't smoke and don't sit on, or stand above any sacred objects.
Religious festivals are sacred occasions and you will upset many local people if you wander around taking photographs while the dances or ceremonies are going on.
Respect people's privacy
Peruvians get just as annoyed by people peering into their lives as you do. Always put yourself in his or her position, especially before taking someone's photograph. It is a common courtesy to ask for permission before taking a shot and if they don't want their photo taken, please respect this. Many of the Andean people believe that by taking their photograph, you are virtually stealing their soul. Don't pay people for posing for you.
Be modest with your wealth
However poor you think you are at home, by Indian standards you are very wealthy. Don't flaunt this wealth by showing off your hi-tech equipment. Leaving it lying around unattended is further proof that you could easily afford to replace it.
Begging in Peru started as a children's game to see if they could get some chocolate or school pen from the always-obliging tourists. However, it has developed into a far more serious problem by fostering an attitude of dependency among the young. Don't give anything to people who ask for it, after all, giving sweets to children in a country which has few dentists is not an act of charity; if you want to give money it's best to ask the advice of one of the excellent NGOs we work with in Peru as to whom it should be given.
The trip fee is $2420 plus airfare. You will schedule your own air travel.
Once you register, the leader of our trip, Tammy Leland, will be in touch with you on details for the trip, recommendations for flights, and any other details for your travel.
You are not required to take this course as a credited course. If you would like to include the trip as a credited course, you will need to sign up for a Student Independent Study (SIS) for summer term. There will be additional course fees for the SIS. Polly Chandler will be the faculty member assigned to the SIS for Antioch University New England. Students from other campuses should discuss the options with their advisor and campus registrar. If you would like to use your financial aide package to help pay for this trip, you should talk to your financial aide office.
If you have any questions about registration or an SIS, contact: Polly Chandler, Director of MBA in Sustainability, AUNE
Tammy Leland, Co Founder and International Program Director, Crooked Trails
***This itinerary is subject to change.***
Join Antioch University students and alumni for an exciting exploration of sustainability and social responsibility in Peru.
FLIGHTS: Students are responsible for arranging their own flights to and from Lima. Students interested in staying longer in Peru should arrange their own departure plans and plan on leaving the group after dinner on July 1.
Itinerary: Download Full Itinerary and Information
B, L, D, indicates meals included.
JUNE 23 (Saturday) Travel Day.
Spend the day in flight to Lima.
JUNE 24 (Sunday) Lima.
Getting Familiar with Peru Tour of Lima, the Surquillo market and Barranco. B, L
JUNE 25 (Monday) Lima.
Alternative Models of Corporate Social Responsibility. B
JUNE 26 (Tuesday) Lima.
Emerging Businesses in Central and South America: We will drive north to the factories of AjeGroup a family owned corporation involved in the manufacturing, distribution and marketing of syrups and nonalcoholic beverages based out of Lima, Peru. B, L
JUNE 27 (Wednesday) Lima.
Ethics—Several CSR initiatives throughout Peru were started by university professors and student groups. In the morning we will meet with professor Patricia Quiroz Morales of Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru and discuss the role of academia in CSR in Peru. We will also meet with other students working in Sustainable development.
In the early afternoon, we will fly Puerto Maldonado in the Southern Amazon Rainforest After a brief survey of the town we will drive thirty minutes to the Tambopata river port in the community of Infierno. We will board our boats for a one-hour trip by motorized canoe to Posada Amazonas. When we arrive at Posada Amazonas we will unpack and unwind. Posada Amazonas is a comfortable yet unobtrusive 30 room lodge owned jointly by Rainforest Expeditions and the Local Community of Infierno. After dinner we will have our first presentation on business concessions in the Madre De Dios National Reserve. B, L, D
June 28 (Thursday) Sustainability and the Timber Industry.
June 29 (Friday) Sustainability and Agriculture.
June 30 (Saturday) Sustainability and Ecotourism.
July 1 Travel Day (Sunday).
Morning in the Amazon. Return to Lima. Fly back to Lima for a celebratory farewell dinner, followed by our late flight home.
Booking Travel to Peru
All participants must arrange their own flight plans. This will allow you stay later if you want to travel further in Peru. All flights should be booked by March 1 in order to meet the course deadlines as listed in the course description.
If you don't have a ticket agent you like, Crooked Trail recommends:
Adventure Travel Company
715 Broadway Ave East
Seattle WA 98102
Fax 206-322-1538 www.atcadventure.com
Continental, Delta, American and United Airways are the most frequently used airlines from the United States. They offer frequent service between the US and Peru. For those living outside of the US, there are several airlines to take advantage of a greater variety of schedules.
All internal flights (between the Amazon and Lima) are included in the land cost of your trip. Your trip leader from Crooked Trails will handle all airline tickets and check-in formalities, etc. In the event of non-availability or cancellation of any scheduled internal flight, alternative road transportation will be provided with no additional expense or refund to you.
Confirmation of International Flights
You will need to reconfirm your international flight two days prior to departure. All group domestic flights and return flights in Peru will be reconfirmed by your Crooked Trail trip leader. Seat assignments often can be made in advance for the international flight but are usually not available for domestic flights where seating is on a first-come, first serve basis.
International airlines require that you check-in for your international flight no later than two hours prior to departure. This much or more time is often needed because of time-consuming security checks and the risk that the airline may have overbooked the flight.
Should your luggage get lost en route to Lima, it may take several days to recover. Most items are fairly easily replaced in Lima and can be bought or rented, except a well-fitted pair of hiking/walking shoes. Therefore we suggest that you carry on or wear your hiking boots on your flight. Valuable items such as cameras or binoculars, and essentials such as prescription medications and of course your travel documents and money should always be hand carried on all flights. Checked luggage should be locked and properly labeled. Remember to remove all sharp objects from carry-on and stow in your main luggage. Please remember that the U.S. has imposed new regulations regarding fluids in your carry-on. Be sure to review those at http://www.tsa.gov/travelers/airtravel/prohibited/permitted-prohibited-items.shtm On most flights to Lima, you are allowed to check two bags and have one carry-on bag. Each of your checked bags can weigh up to 50 lbs. The carry-on must fit under the seat. For most trans-oceanic flights, you may only be allowed to check your baggage to your first major layover city where you must claim your baggage, and re-check it onto your continuing flight. Check with your airlines to confirm their current rules.
Departure tax from the U.S. is included in your ticket. However, you are responsible for payment of departure taxes in Lima at the time of your check-in. Departure tax in Lima is $30 (sometimes included in your ticket)
Documentation for Antioch
Students must provide a copy of trip insurance, student health insurance, emergency contact information, health history (to be posted on Sakai) flight plans and passport by March 1, 2012. Copies of these documents need to be submitted to instructor, Polly Chandler firstname.lastname@example.org or by mail AUNE, 40 Avon Street, Keene, NH 03431 Crooked Trail will provide a detailed packet prior to the trip that will include details about travel in Peru, safety, cultural traditions to honor, food, etc… This packet will be available in April 2012 on Sakai.
With international travel there are several items that need to be attended to early on. The first four items in this section should be addressed at least six weeks prior to departure.
International Student ID Card (ISIC)
How to get a card: You can buy the card online or you can search locations to buy in person near you, or you can call 1-800-223-7986. The card cost $22 and if you buy it online there is a $3 shipping charge. The ISIC card is only available to full-time students, so you must be able to prove you are currently studying full time at school, college or university.
When applying, please provide one of the following documents:
- A copy of your university or student identity card, clearly dated and indicating you are a full-time student or
- A signed and dated letter on official university or school stationery stating you are studying there full time. We prefer an original copy, although photocopies and faxes may be accepted or
- A valid school email address (when you order online)
You will also need:
- Proof of your date of birth
- A passport-sized photograph (When you order online, you will add the photo to the ISIC card when it arrives, you do not need the photo before you order.)
- Travel Insurance (remember AAG) REQUIRED
- Crooked Trails are hopeful the unexpected will not happen when you travel with us. If something does happen however, we want you to be fully protected. We understand the importance of comprehensive international travel insurance protection for all our clients, and thus encourage you to book travel insurance. We recommend CJET Global and you can reach them at: (206) 283-8737 or Email: email@example.com.
IDs, Passports and Visas
- You need a valid passport, and highly recommend you bring another form of photo id like a driver's license or ISIC card
- It's a good idea to make 2 copies of these and other travel documents. Give a copy to someone you trust not going on the trip and the other in a separate location with you while travelling.
- If you do not have your passport already, you will need to apply for it very soon. It takes approximately six weeks to receive your passport, but can take longer. If you are in a crunch, you can use the expedite service and receive the passport in two weeks. This will cost an additional $60 as well as two-way overnight delivery fees. To do this, overnight your passport forms and documents along with a $60 check made out to the US Department of State to this address: National Passport Processing. Attn: Department 13349, 1617 Brett Road New Castle, DE 19720
- Write "EXPEDITED" in big, bold letters on both the front and back of your envelope and make sure to include a prepaid overnight return envelope for the passport office.
- Go online to www.travel.state.gov/passport or www.passportexpress.com to get information about obtaining a passport. Or go to your telephone book white pages, and look under the blue listings for Government, then Federal then find Passports. If you are having trouble locating your local passport agency, please feel free to contact us for assistance.
Plan ahead for getting your vaccinations: some of them require more than one injection, while some should not be given together. You should see a travel doctor six weeks prior to departure. To find a travel clinic there are 3 ways to go.
- Go to the white pages of your telephone book and look under the blue pages of Government listings. Go to Country, and then look under the heading of Health Service then Travel Immunization.
- Ask your family doctor for a doctor who specializes in Travel medicine.
- Call your local University as many of them have a travel clinic.
Peru requires no immunizations to enter the country; however, due to the remote nature of our destination, there are several immunizations you should consider. These include Yellow Fever, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Tetanus, and Hepatitis B. A number of other vaccinations are recommended for travel in certain areas. These are not required, but are recommended for your own personal protection. Malaria is not typically a concern for travelers in the Andes Mountains of Peru, only in the Amazon basin and parts of the far northern coast, so be specific with your doctor about your itinerary and ask their advice. If you haven't had your Measles/Mumps/Rubella shot since you were a child, your doctor will suggest it. Let your doctor help you decide based on your length of stay and our planned destinations in Peru.
- Customs and Border Protection - See the US Customs and Border Protection website for travel tips, and what to know before you go.
- Lima is in the Central Time Zone.
- Travelling international, sustainably
- CARBON EMISSIONS AND YOUR FLIGHT Air travel is a significant contributor to climate change and Cooked Trails is proud to be working with Planting Empowerment to offset the climate impact of all our trips beginning January 1, 2007. Through this innovative partnership the emissions of every Crooked Trails trip will be offset. Crooked Trails has included in each program the fee to cover the cost of offsetting the emissions with renewable energy. 100% of this fee will be donated to Carbonfund.org. One roundtrip flight from mainland USA across the pacific can produce more than 3.5 tons of carbon dioxide. By offsetting the carbon from your flight you can travel more responsibly and happily.
- Planting Empowerment will take the contribution and use it to plant trees in Panama. With this support, Planting Empowerment, Crooked Trails, and you are helping to grow the market for renewable energy that will lead to even more zero carbon energy production. It's just one more way we walk our talk when it comes to responsible travel. Learn more about the work that PE is doing by visiting their website: http://www.plantingempowerment.com/61.html
Currency and Money
- Notify your bank ahead of time of your travels. Foreign transactions can be flagged at your bank and they may stop any transactions until they contact you, which may be difficult. Also notify any credit cards you will be carrying with you.
- Exchange: It is recommended that you land with at least some local currency
- The currency in Peru is the nuevo sol (S). Exchange rates vary, but are about $1=3 Soles. Cash and travelers' checks are readily accepted and can be exchanged for soles at the airport, hotel, exchange houses or any banks when you arrive in Lima. It is important to examine your US dollars before arriving in Peru. Bills must be in good condition or banks and exchange houses will not accept them. Avoid bringing bills with small tears, writing or heavily worn bills. Traveler's checks are exchanged at a lower rate than cash and a commission can be charged. ATMs are readily available in most of the cities we will visit.
- All participants should carry a money belt for carrying valuables such as cash, air tickets, passports and credit cards.
While in Peru, you will be responsible for:
- Your own meals not covered in itinerary where you can expect to pay around $3.00 to $7.00 a meal. Please refer to the itinerary for a day-by-day explanation of meals covered.
- International airport departure tax, which is $30 and domestic airport tax for three flights, which are $6 per flight.
- Personal items such as laundry, phone calls, emails and snacks.
- Footwear: Light hiking shoes or trail running shoes are sufficient for our daily walks/hikes. Sandals are great for down time. They will also come in handy in Lima and the jungle where temperatures can get warm. We recommend sports sandals.
- Clothing: In the jungle it will be warm all the time, but you will most likely want to cover your legs and arms from insects so long light weight pants and shirts are ideal.
- It is culturally inappropriate for woman to expose their legs in the villages; therefore we ask that you do not wear shorts on the village portions of this trip. Men, we ask you do not wear shorts as well.
A full packing list will be posted on Sakai closer to the trip.
The Conquest of the Incas by John Hemming One of the best books on the Incas and the conquest.
The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru Michael E. Mosey. For readers more seriously interested in Peruvian archaeology.
The Neotropical Companion: An Introduction to the Animals , Plants, and Ecosystems of the New World Tropics by John C. Kricher. For the layperson interested in natural history of Peru.
Touching the Void by Joe Simpson. This is a true story of a climbing accident in the Cordilera Huayhuash. A gripping page turner.
The Cloud Forest by Peter Matthiessen. Describes Matthiessen’s journey from the rivers of Peru to the mountains of Tierra del Fuego.
At Play in the Field of the Lord by Peter Matthiessen. A Novel. A superb and believable story of the conflict between the forces of development and indigenous peoples.
Journey to Machu Picchu by Carol Cumes. Connects New Age travelers to the spiritual and healing powers of Machu Picchu.
The Rivers Ran East by Leonard Clark. One of the most exciting books ever written about exploration and adventure into the Peruvian Amazon during the late 40s and 50s before anyone had explored the area.
Exploring Cusco by Peter Frost. Great book for self exploration of Cusco. Peter is a long time resident of Cusco and great historian.
The White Rock by Hugh Thomson. Part travelog, part history lesson, this narrative by documentary filmmaker Thomson (Out of India, Great Journeys: Mexico) recounts a successful expedition he led in 1982 to "refind" Llactapata, the "lost city of the Incas," and to explore other Inca sites spanning three countries. So entertaining and appealing is Thomson's story of his exploration of the Inca empire that readers will wish they could take off and follow in his footsteps.
The Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone of Southeastern Peru, A Biological Assessment by Robin B. Foster. A survey of the biological resources of the region.
The Monkey's Paw, New Chronicles from Peru by Robin Kirk. A fascinating, multi-faceted portrait of the nation as shown through the travels and interviews of journalist Robin Kirk in Peru of the 1980s and 1990s.
Death in the Andes by Mario Vargas Llosa. Ancient and modern horrors mingle in Vargas Llosa's somber yet oddly zestful novel, the most direct examination the Peruvian writer has made of his nation's complex political problems since The War of the End of the World and The Real Life of Alejandro Mayta.