What to Cite
Part of any research project is providing accurate documentation for references you have used. The purpose for this is two-fold: 1) to give credit where credit is due and avoid plagiarism; and 2) so that anyone wanting further information from a source you have used knows where to find it. You must provide documentation for:
- someone else's ideas
- exact quotes and phrases
- information obtained from interviews
- re-prints of diagrams, pictures, photographs, or charts
You do not need to provide documentation for:
- your own words or ideas
- information that is considered to be 'common knowledge' or generally accepted facts
- your own experimental results
(adapted from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab)
There are a number of tools or 'citation management programs' available which will keep records of your citations, organize them, and help you format citations and bibliographies properly.
- Zotero is a FREE citation management program. Zotero captures citations from databases, websites, Google Scholar, catalogs, etc., with one click. When you're writing your paper, Zotero will correctly format your citations and bibliography.
RefWorks is a powerful online research management, writing and collaboration tool designed to help researchers at all levels easily gather, organize, store and share all types of information and to instantly generate citations and bibliographies.
- There are several "citation generators" available (some require registration) which will format citations for you one at a time, based on information you put in. Try BibMe or Citation Machine.
Academic Dishonesty & Plagiarism
As a community of scholar-practitioners, Antioch University New England seeks to live and promote the principles of academic integrity. Accordingly, plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty are causes for concern and possible disciplinary measures. To plagiarize is defined in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary as “...to steal and pass off (the ideas and words of others) as one's own; to use (a credited production) without crediting the source; to present as new and original an idea or product from an existing source...” Plagiarism includes not only taking direct quotes from written or oral sources without citation, but paraphrasing others' ideas as well. Students found to have plagiarized or engaged in other acts of academic dishonesty may receive a no-credit for the course and be subject to other disciplinary sanctions through regular academic department and institutional procedures for misconduct. [from the Student Handbook] For more information about plagiarism and guidelines for determining when to give credit to another person or source, visit:
- Avoiding Plagiarism Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
- Examples of Plagiarism from Princeton University
Need help? Ask a librarian!
- At Antioch University New England, students in the departments of Applied Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Education, and Management should use APA style for their papers.
- All of the APA's rules and guidelines can be found in the most current edition (6th, 2010) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. When in doubt, consult the Manual!
- The Library has three copies of the Manual that can be checked out. There is one copy always available in the Reference section.
- See the Examples section for examples of commonly-sited resources.
- Visit the websites listed below for tutorials and other information on APA style.
[All material is based on the most current Publication Manual (6th edition)]
Reference List citations
For complete details on Reference list formatting, consult Chapter 7 of the Manual, "Reference Examples." All citations must be double-spaced with hanging indent.
Journal article w/ DOI:
Abrahams, H. (2007). Ethics in counseling research fieldwork. Counseling & Psychotherapy
Research, 7(4), 240-244. doi:10.1080/14733140701707068
Journal article w/ no DOI, retrieved from online database:
Allanach, R. (2009). Role of mentor in the context of clinical supervision. Annals of the American
Psychotherapy Association, 12(2), 40-43. Retrieved from ProQuest Psychology Journals.
Book, one author:
Bettelheim, B. (1976). The uses of enchantment : the meaning and importance of fairy tales (1st ed.).
New York, NY: Knopf.
Book with an editor:
Gurman, A.S. (Ed). (2008). Clinical handbook of couples therapy (4th ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Chapter in a book. List by chapter author and title:
Daitch, C. (2010). Dialing down distress: Affect regulation in intimate relationships. In M. Kerman (Ed.),
Clinical pearls of wisdom: twenty-one leading therapists offer their key insights (pp. 144-154).
New York, NY : W W Norton.
AAMFT Code of Ethics. (n.d.) Retrieved June 2, 2010, from the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists website
[see p. 177 of the Manual for in-text citations chart]
- Last name & date only, no initials:
- It has been suggested that behavioral observation is valuable in improving therapeutic interventions on an empirical basis (Smith, 2009).
- Smith (2009) suggested that behavioral observation is valuable.
- In a recent study it was demonstrated that water is wet (Johnson & Brown, 2001).
- Page numbers: APA style generally does NOT require page numbers except for direct quotes from another source BUT: "When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text." (p. 174 of the Manual)
- The sky is blue (Smith, 2001, p. 374).
- Smith and Jones (2001) stated that the sky is blue (p. 374).
- FAQ on the APA site
- APA Documentation (The Writing Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison) Provides an orientation to APA style, direct links to instructions for creating parenthetical citations and a reference list, and general guidelines for writing.
- The Basics of APA Style tutorial from the APA.
- APA Guidelines from Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Center)
- APA Style Workshop from Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Center)
Need help? Ask a librarian!
For current information on MLA style, consult one or both of the following books in the AUNE library:
- MLA FAQ
- MLA Documentation from the University of Wisconsin Writing Center
- MLA Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Center)
- MLA Style Information from Research & Documentation Online (the 'Hacker Handbook' from Diana Hacker and Barbara Fister)
For current information, consult the The Chicago Manual of Style in the AUNE library.
Need help? Ask a librarian!
CSE (Council of Science Editors, formerly CBE)
- Council of Science Editors documentation systems
- CSE (CBE) Citation Guide from Ohio State Libraries
- CSE Documentation Systems from Diana Hacker & Barbara Fister
- Conservation Biology Style for Authors Society for Conservation Biology. Guidelines for article submission to the journal Conservation Biology. Includes information about writing style, organization, and citing references.